Table of



Part One

Fundamentals of Internment/Resettlement Operations

Part One provides information that is critical in understanding the I/R function. Chapter 1 introduces the manual by providing key definitions, establishing the I/R objectives and principles, and providing a list of agencies concerned with I/R operations. Chapter 2 describes commander and staff responsibilities that are unique to I/R operations. Together, these chapters provide leaders and soldiers with the foundation necessary for successful implementation of national military objectives as they relate to I/R operations.

Chapter 1


This chapter provides key definitions as set forth by the Geneva and Hague Conventions, Army regulations (ARs), and the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). These definitions explain personnel categories that the MP commander may be tasked to handle, protect, and account for. He must ensure that personnel are treated according to established laws, regulations, and international agreements. The MP leaders and soldiers conducting I/R operations must maintain task proficiency for each category.


1-1. Unlike EPW/CI operations in the past, I/R operations include additional detained persons. The I/R operations include handling, protecting, and accounting for dislocated civilians (DCs) and conducting battlefield confinement of US military prisoners. With the alignment of these additional categories, leaders and soldiers must ensure that they understand and are prepared to apply the rules of engagement (ROE) and the rules of interaction (ROI) that apply to each category. The keys to a successful I/R operation are getting the mission accomplished and performing the mission under the correct mind-set. For example, the ROE that may apply to an EPW may not apply to a refugee or a US military prisoner. However, an MP may be tasked to handle each category during the course of an operation. This dimension is addressed throughout the manual to increase the MP commander's situational awareness (SA) as it relates to this aspect of I/R operations.


1-2. The following terms are defined below:


1-3. The CZ is the area required by combat forces to conduct operations. It normally extends forward from the land force's rear boundary. The communications zone (COMMZ) is the rear part of the theater of operations (TO). It is behind and contiguous to the CZ. The COMMZ contains lines of communication (LOC), supply and evacuation areas, and other agencies required for the immediate support and maintenance of field forces. It reaches to the continental United States (CONUS), to a supporting combatant command's area of responsibility (AOR), or to both. An EPW must be moved as quickly as possible from the CZ to the COMMZ where an I/R unit interns him.

NOTE: For a complete discussion on the operational framework of a CZ, see FM 3-0.


1-4. As defined in the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (GPW), 12 August 1949, an EPW is—

1-5. The following persons are treated as EPWs:

1-6. Captured enemy personnel are presumed to be EPWs immediately upon capture if the circumstances are unmistakable (armed, uniformed enemy). If questions arise as to whether captured personnel belong in the EPW category, they receive the same treatment as EPWs until their status is determined by a competent military tribunal according to AR 190-8.


1-7. A CI is a person who is interned during armed conflict or occupation if he is considered a security risk or if he needs protection because he committed an offense (insurgent, criminal) against the detaining power. A CI is protected according to the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (GC), 12 August 1949.


1-8. An RP is an enemy who falls within one of the following categories:

1-9. An RP is a special category for medical personnel and chaplains because of their special skills and training. They may be retained by the detaining power (see FM 27-10) to aid EPWs, preferably those of the armed force to which the RP belongs. Per the Geneva Conventions, RPs receive the same benefits and protection as EPWs. The following privileges and considerations are extended to RPs due to their professions:

NOTE: For a complete discussion on RPs, see AR 190-8.


1-10. A person in the custody of US armed forces who has not been classified as an EPW (Article 4, GPW), an RP (Article 33, GPW), or a CI (Article 78, GC) is treated as an EPW until a legal status is ascertained by competent authority.


1-11. A DC is a civilian who left his home for various reasons. His movement and physical presence can hinder military operations. He most likely requires some degree of aid (medicine, food, shelter, or clothing). A DC may not be native to the area (local populace) or to the country where he resides. A DC is a generic term that is further subdivided into the following categories:


1-12. A US military prisoner is sentenced by a court-martial to confinement or death and ordered into confinement by competent authority, whether or not the sentence has been approved by the convening authority. A person placed into confinement by competent authority pending trial by court-martial is a pretrial prisoner or a pretrial detainee.


1-13. The objectives of I/R operations are to process, handle, care for, account for, and secure—

1-14. The principles employed to achieve the objectives are according to the Hague Convention (1907), the Geneva Conventions (1949), the Geneva Convention Relative to the Status of Refugees (1951) and its protocol (1967), and current STANAGs. These principles include—

NOTE: The principles employed for US military prisoners are outlined in AR 190-47 and Department of Defense (DOD) Directive 1325.4.


1-15. The expanded MP functions of I/R involve certain international and domestic organizations not previously considered during MP operations. There are numerous private relief organizations, foreign and domestic, that are involved in humanitarian relief and I/R operations. Likewise, the media normally provides extensive coverage of I/R operations. In many instances, the DOD will not be the lead agency in I/R operations, which adds to the complexity. For instance, the DOD could be tasked in a supporting role, with the Department of State (DOS) or another agency in the lead.


1-16. Under the Geneva Conventions and subsequent protocols, a capturing power is responsible for proper and humane treatment of detainees from the moment of capture or other apprehension. The Secretary of the Army is the executive agent for DOD I/R operations and administration. He is responsible for plans, policy development, and operational coordination for persons captured and interned by US armed forces. Navy, Marine, and Air Force units that detain or capture persons turn them over to the Army at designated receiving points after initial classification and administrative processing.

1-17. Per DOD Directive 3025.1, the Secretary of the Army tasks DOD components to plan and commit DOD resources in response to requests for military support from civil authorities. The Director of Military Support (DOMS) provides leadership in this effort.

1-18. Examples of DOD decision makers are the Under Secretary of Defense (USD) for Policy and the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (DASD) for Humanitarian and Refugee Affairs (H&RA). The USD for Policy develops and administers military policies and programs for international HA and foreign relief operations. The DASD for H&RA executes the policies and tasks the services accordingly.


1-19. The DOS is organized into functional and regional bureaus. It represents the US via embassies throughout the world.


1-20. Per the Stafford Act, the federal government responds to disasters and emergencies to save lives and protect public health, safety, and property. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is responsible for the nation's emergency management system. Local and state programs are the heart of the nation's emergency management system, and most disasters are handled by local and state governments. When devastations are especially serious and exceed local and state capabilities and resources, states turn to the federal government for help.

1-21. When the President declares a major disaster, FEMA coordinates response activities for federal agencies that may participate. The agencies help states and localities recover from disasters by providing services, resources, and personnel. They transport food and potable water, provide medical aid, assist with temporary housing, and furnish generators for hospitals and other essential facilities. The FEMA also works with states and territories during nondisaster periods to plan for disasters, develop mitigation programs, and anticipate requirements.

1-22. The Federal Response Plan addresses the consequences of disasters and emergencies. It applies to natural disasters (earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, tornadoes, and volcanic eruptions), technological emergencies (radiological and hazardous material [HM] releases), and other incidents. The plan describes the basic mechanisms and structures to mobilize resources and conduct activities that augment state and local efforts. It uses a functional approach to group the types of federal assistance that a state is most likely to need under emergency support functions (ESFs). Each ESF is headed by a primary agency based on its authorities, resources, and capabilities in the functional area. The ESFs are the primary mechanisms through which federal assistance is provided. Federal assistance is provided to affected states under the overall coordination of a federal coordinating officer, who is appointed by the FEMA director on behalf of the President.


1-23. Other federal agencies provide advice, assistance, and resources to plan, implement, and accomplish I/R operations. They are the—


1-24. Civilian organizations are responsible for a wide range of activities encompassing HA; human rights; the protection of minorities, refugees, and DPs; legal assistance; medical care; reconstruction; agriculture; education; arts; science; and project funding. The commander must understand the mandate, role, structure method, and principles of civilian organizations. Without this understanding, it is impossible to establish an effective relationship with them.

1-25. These organizations may already be in the area of operations (AO), providing HA or some type of relief when I/R operations are planned and implemented. The principle coordinating federal agency is the USAID, and civilian organizations are required to register with the USAID to operate under US auspices.

Types of Civilian Organizations

1-26. There are three principle types of civilian organizations:

The NGOs are increasingly numerous and sophisticated, and they can number in the hundreds in any conflict. They remain strongly independent from political control to preserve their independence and effectiveness. In many cases, their impartiality has been of great benefit, forming the only available means of rebuilding relations when political dialog has broken down. They are often highly professional in their field and extremely well motivated and prepared to take physical risks in appalling conditions. Examples of NGOs include the—

  • Save the Children Foundation (SCF).

  • Médecin Sans Frontiéres (Doctors Without Borders) (MSF).

  • Catholic Relief Services (CRS).

  • National Council of Catholic Bishops (NCCB).

An NGO is mandated or nonmandated:

  • Mandated. A mandated NGO has been officially recognized by the lead IO in a crisis and has been authorized to work in the affected area.

  • Nonmandated. A nonmandated NGO has no official recognition or authorization and, therefore, works as a private concern. A nonmandated NGO can be subcontracted by an IO or a mandated NGO. It can also obtain funds from private enterprises or donors.

Civilian Lead Agencies

1-27. A lead agency is mandated by the international community to initiate the cooperation of civilian organizations that volunteer to participate in an operation. The lead agency is normally a major UN agency, such as the UNHCR or the UNOCHA, and it—

Understanding Civilian Organizations

1-28. A good working relationship can be established with NGOs, IOs, and IHOs through trust and understanding. The most effective way for military forces to understand an organization's knowledge, skills, and abilities is to establish and maintain a liaison with it. This understanding can also be gained through educating military leaders in military schools and courses.


1-29. The UN is involved in the entire spectrum of HA operations from prevention to relief. Typically, UN relief agencies establish independent networks to execute their humanitarian-relief operations. The UN system delegates as much as possible to agency elements located in the field, with supervisory and support networks traced from field officers back to UN headquarters. Military planners must be familiar with UN objectives to ensure compatibility with military plans and orders. The UN agencies include the United Nations Disaster Relieve Coordinator (UNDRC) and the UNHCR:


1-30. Three organizations make up the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. They are the—


1. These organizations are distinctly different and have separate mandates and staff organizations. Do not consider them to be one organization.

2. Red Crescent organizations are found in predominately Muslim countries. They have the same goals and missions as Red Cross organizations.

1-31. Although the ICRC is essentially Swiss, it has worldwide operations and acts as a neutral intermediary in armed conflicts. The ICRC ensures that conflict victims receive appropriate protection and assistance within the scope of the Geneva Conventions, their protocols, and the ICRC mandate. The ICRC undertakes protection and assistance activities for the benefit of detainees and civilian populations by—


1-32. The provisions of the Geneva Conventions are applicable to captives and detainees from the time they are captured until they are released or repatriated. AR 190-8 is the implementing regulation. When a person is captured during the heat of battle, he is entitled to protection as a detainee.

1-33. Detainees receive humane treatment without distinction of race, nationality, religious belief, political opinion, or similar criteria. Captives and detainees are not murdered, mutilated, tortured, or degraded. They are not punished for alleged criminal acts without previous judgment pronounced by a legally constituted court that has accorded them judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable to a fair trial. Individuals and capturing nations are responsible for acts committed against detainees if the acts violate the Geneva Conventions.

1-34. Captives and detainees are entitled to respect, and they are treated with honor and as human beings. They are protected against violence, insults, public curiosity, and reprisals. They are not subjected to physical mutilation or medical or scientific experimentation that is not required for normal medical, dental, or hospital treatment. Coercion is not inflicted on captives and detainees to obtain information. Those who refuse to answer are not threatened, insulted, or exposed to unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment. Female captives and detainees are treated with respect and accorded fair and equal treatment.


1-35. A neutral state or a humanitarian organization, such as the ICRC, is designated as a protecting power. The protecting power monitors whether detainees are receiving humane treatment as required by international law. Representatives or delegates of a protecting power are authorized to visit detainees where they are interned or confined and to interview them regarding their internment, welfare, and rights. The interview may be conducted without witnesses. Such visits cannot be prohibited except for imperative military necessity.


1-36. Basic US policy underlying the treatment of detainees and other captured or interned personnel during the course of a conflict requires and directs that all personnel be accorded humanitarian care and treatment from the moment of custody until their final release or repatriation. The US personnel are fully and equally bound to observe this policy whether capturing troops, custodial personnel, or anyone else, regardless of the capacity they may be serving. This policy is equally applicable for protecting detained and interned personnel whether they are known to have committed or are suspected of committing a serious offense that could be characterized as a war crime. The punishment of such persons is administered by the due process of law and under legally constituted authority. Inhumane treatment, even if committed under stress of combat and with deep provocation, is a serious and punishable violation under national law, international law, and the UCMJ.


1-37. The Geneva Conventions, comprised of four treaties, form part of the supreme law of the land and provide the internationally recognized humanitarian standards for the treatment of war victims. The US ratified the Geneva Conventions for the Protection of War Victims, 12 August 1949. It recognizes the spirit and intent of these treaties in its treatment of EPWs, CIs, and detained and interned persons. The Geneva Conventions became effective in 1956, and the US observes and enforces the terms of these conventions. They are collectively referred to as the Geneva Conventions and include the—

1-38. STANAG 2044 prescribes concepts and procedures for the control and administration of EPWs by US armed forces operating in Europe under operational control (OPCON) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in coordination with one or more NATO allies, and supported by the doctrine contained in this manual. STANAG 2044 provides—


1-39. The Geneva Convention Relative to the Status of Refugees (1951) and its protocols (1967) provide a general, universally applicable definition of refugee. They address the minimum standards for the treatment of refugees, specifying the obligations of the host nation (HN) and the refugees to one another. Among the important provisions of the 1951 Convention is the principle of nonrefoulement (Article 33). The principle of nonrefoulement is often referred to as the cornerstone of international protection. This principle prohibits the return or expulsion of a refugee to the territory of a state where his life, freedom, or personal security would be in jeopardy. Through widespread practice, the principle is considered to be a rule of customary law, binding nations whether or not they are signatories.

1-40. The 1951 Convention also provides protection of refugees. A refugee has the right to safe asylum; however, international protection comprises more than physical safety. Refugees receive the same rights and help as any other foreigner who is a legal resident, including certain fundamental entitlements of every individual. Refugees have basic civil rights, including freedom of thought and movement and freedom from torture and degrading treatment. Similarly, refugees have economic and social rights. Every adult refugee has the right to work, and no child refugee is deprived of schooling. In certain circumstances, such as large-scale inflows of refugees, asylum states may feel obliged to restrict certain rights, such as freedoms of movement, work, and education. Such gaps should be filled by the international community when possible. When resources are unavailable from the government of the asylum country or other agencies, the UNHCR will assist.

NOTE: For further details, see the UNHCR Handbook for the Military on Humanitarian Operations, First Edition, 1995.