All MP commanders and staff members must be familiar with applicable ARs, Army directives, and international laws necessary for the successful operation of I/R and confinement facilities. This chapter discusses areas of greatest concern when performing the I/R function.
|SECTION I - COMMANDERS
2-1. An MP battalion commander tasked with operating an I/R facility is also the facility commander. As such, he is responsible for the safety and well-being of all personnel housed within the facility. Since an MP unit may be tasked to handle different categories of personnel (EPW, CI, OD, refugee, and US military prisoner), the commander, the cadre, and support personnel must be aware of the requirements for each category.
2-2. Commanders are familiar with applicable regulations, directives, international laws, and administrative procedures. The servicing staff judge advocate (SJA) provides legal advice and training on I/R matters. Regulations and other guidance relative to the administration, employment, and compensation of internees are prescribed in
Defense Finance and Accounting ServiceIndianapolis (DFAS-IN) 37-1.
2-3. Copies of the Geneva Conventions and compound regulations, orders, and notices relating to internee conduct and activities are posted in each facility, in the language of internees who are housed there. If internees do not have access to posted copies, the facility commander makes copies available to them.
2-4. The commander is responsible for the administrative processing of each internee. When processing is complete, he submits a DA Form 2674-R to the servicing internment/resettlement information center (IRIC), which functions as the field operations agency for the national IRIC located in CONUS.
2-5. The following principles apply to I/R facilities:
2-6. An EPW/CI has the right to
NOTE: The rights of US military prisoners are outlined in AR 190-47 and DOD Directive 1325.4.
2-7. Standing orders provide uniform, orderly administration of an I/R facility. The orders to be obeyed by housed personnel are published in their language and posted where they can read the orders and refer to them. Standing orders include rules, procedures, and instructions (see Figure 2-1) governing the following activities and other matters as deemed appropriate:
Figure 2-1. Sample Standing Orders
2-8. To protect persons from acts of violence, bodily injury, and threats of reprisals at the hand of fellow internees, post a notice of protection (Figure 2-2) in the internees' language in every compound.
A detainee who fears that his life is in danger, or fears that he may suffer physical injury at the hands of another detainee, should immediately report to a US member of the facility without consulting his representative. The facility commander ensures adequate protection for the victim by segregation, transfer, or other means. A detainee who mistreats a fellow detainee will be punished.
Figure 2-2. Sample Notice of Protection
2-9. The commander establishes local records and reports necessary for the effective operation of the I/R facility. They provide information about the control, supervision, and disposition of personnel housed in the facility. He determines the type (administrative, operational, logistical, intelligence, and personnel) of reports and the frequency (routine or as required). Normal reports (duty officer logs, worksheets, and situation maps) are also required.
2-10. Commanders consider the following when establishing medical care (see AR 190-8):
Records his weight on DA Form 2664-R.
The medical treatment facility provides isolation of communicable diseases, disinfection, and inoculations. Use retained medical personnel and EPWs with medical training to the fullest extent possible when caring for sick and wounded EPWs. When medical care is inadequate, transfer housed personnel to military or civilian medical facilities where the required treatment is available.
2-11. Certain sanitation standards must be met to prevent disease and ensure cleanliness. These standards include
2-12. Encourage and support active education, religious, recreation, and employment programs when practical. If possible, provide adequate facilities, instruction material, and recreation equipment.
2-13. Accredited representatives of protecting powers and the ICRC are allowed full access to the I/R facility and internees. Representatives of approved religious organizations, relief societies, NGOs, IHOs, and other organizations assisting housed personnel are permitted to visit according to policies and procedures prescribed by the DA.
2-14. Advanced coordination is encouraged by representatives of NGOs, IOs, and IHOs who want access to internees. This avoids confusion when representatives arrive at the facility. Likewise, the facility staff coordinates in advance with organizations to establish an access roster of representatives and a means of verifying their identity.
2-15. Housed personnel are allowed freedom of worship, including attendance at services of their respective faith held within the facility. Retained chaplains and other EPW clergymen are permitted to devote their time to ministering to members of their faith. The MP commander may permit other ordained clergymen, theological students, or chaplains to conduct services within the compound. The US personnel will not attend services with EPWs, RPs, CIs, or ODs.
2-16. Participation in recreation activities promotes general health and welfare and alleviates tension and boredom. In addition to athletic contests, group entertainment can be provided by concerts, plays, recorded music, and motion pictures.
2-17. Set up and administer a safety program for housed personnel in each I/R facility. Follow the procedures outlined in AR 385-10 and associated circulars and pamphlets to establish the safety program. Maintain records and reports for the internee safety program separate from those for the Army safety program.
2-18. The EPWs are allowed to raise vegetables for their use. Subsequently, commanders must be aware of resources, procedures, and HN guidelines applicable to this program.
2-19. The MP commander establishes security measures that effectively control housed personnel with minimal use of force. The same use of force that is employed for one category of housed personnel may not be applicable to another. Commanders protect housed personnel from threats outside the facility. The physical construction of the facility and the presence of guard personnel create the most obvious means of providing internal and external security. Maintaining a high state of discipline, a system of routines, and required standards of behavior are all measures that enhance effective security and control.
2-20. Many housed personnel will actively cooperate with US authorities or will assume a passive, compliant role. They will be composed, in part, of individuals with ideologies favorable to the US. Others, through resignation or apathy, will simply adapt themselves to the conditions of their internment.
2-21. Some housed personnel will engage in a campaign of embarrassing and harassing US personnel to create propaganda of value to their cause. The EPWs want to force the use of maximum US troops for other-than-combat missions. The leaders of the uncooperative faction may try to establish a united effort and blind obedience by all its members. They will not be content with merely planning and attempting to escape or using normal harassment tactics. The leaders will assign duties and missions to individuals so that resistance will not stop while they are interned. Any relaxation of security will be immediately detected and fully exploited.
2-22. Maintain firm control at all times. Adapt policies, tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) to achieve this end state.
2-23. The facility guard force provides internal and external security. The force has a commander of the guard, one or more sergeants of the guard, a relief commander for each shift, and the necessary number of guards. There are two types of orders for guards:
General orders. All guards are required to know, understand, and comply with the general orders outlined for sentinels in FM 22-6.
2-24. The facility guard force is the primary source of security for the I/R facility. Its responsibilities include
2-25. Standby guards are soldiers who are not on duty. The standby guard force is large enough to reinforce tower and sally port guards; however, it is not normally used as a quick-reaction force (QRF) to enter enclosures and quell disturbances or conduct searches.
2-26. Tower guards are posted in towers and positioned so that they have overlapping fields of vision of the entire perimeter. This allows one or more guards to observe activities within enclosures. A tower guard's primary duties are to prevent escape and to observe and report unauthorized or suspicious activities.
2-27. Walking patrols supplement the perimeter security when weather conditions or electrical failure prevents tower guards from clearly observing the entire perimeter. Gate guards are posted at perimeter gates and the sally port to
2-28. Military working dogs (MWDs) offer a psychological and real deterrent against physical threats presented by housed personnel. However, they cannot be used as security measures against US military prisoners. The MWDs reinforce security measures against penetration and attack by small enemy forces that may be operating in the area. They also provide a positive, effective alternative to using firearms when preventing disturbances. The various techniques for employing MWDs are
Demonstrations. Hold periodic demonstrations in full view of housed personnel to increase the psychological deterrent of MWDs. Emphasize how easily and quickly an MWD can overtake a fleeing individual, highlight his ability to attack and overcome physical resistance, and demonstrate his tracking ability. To ensure a successful demonstration, use only the best qualified MWD teams.
Perimeter security. Use an MWD team as an adjunct to perimeter security by making periodic, unscheduled patrols around the perimeter fence during periods of darkness. During inclement weather, a temporary blackout, or an electrical failure, increase the number and frequency of patrols. Ensure that housed personnel are aware of MWD presence by having dogs bark at infrequent intervals during the night.
Work details. Position an MWD between the work detail and the area offering the greatest avenue of escape. The MWDs provide a valuable adjunct to work detail guards, particularly those employed in areas offering the greatest potential for escape.
2-29. An MP commander ensures that soldiers understand use-of-force guidelines and the ROE established by higher headquarters for each mission. Because the use of force and the ROE vary depending on the category of housed personnel and the operational environment, the commander develops SOPs that follow the guidance provided. He balances the physical security of forces with mission accomplishment and the protection of deployed forces.
NOTE: For more information on the use of force, see Appendix B.
2-30. The restrictions on combat operations and the use of force are clearly explained in the ROE and are understood and obeyed at all levels. Soldiers study and train on the use of the ROE and discuss them for their mission. The ROE address the distinctions between internee categories and the instruments of control available for each category. Use the following issues to develop ROE guidelines:
2-31. Housed personnel may organize a disturbance within the facility to weaken the guard force. At the beginning of a disturbance, initiate a record of events. Commanders must be concerned with two types of disturbancesriots and disorders:
NOTE: For more information on riots and disorders, see Appendix B.
|SECTION II - STAFF OFFICERS
2-32. Staff officers at tactical headquarters and CSS commands are normally responsible for the same functional areas inside an I/R or confinement facility. However, the emphasis on different aspects and the scope and magnitude of EPW, CI, and US military prisoner activities vary in CS and CSS commands. This section describes additional staff officers that may be found at different echelons of command (primarily I/R MP units) and their areas of responsibility. FM 101-5 describes the roles, relationships, organization, and responsibilities of staffs in the US Army.
2-33. The adjutant general (AG) maintains personnel records for EPWs, CIs, and US military prisoners. The AG's personnel and administrative section can inprocess eight persons per hour, depending on the category. It
2-34. The finance officer
NOTE: See FM 14-100 for more information.
2-35. The civil-military operations (CMO) officer
2-36. The chaplain or the unit ministry team
2-37. The engineer officer is a captain in a brigade and a lieutenant in a battalion. He trains and supervises internees who perform internal and external labor (construction and repair of facilities). The engineer officer is responsible for
2-38. The public affairs officer (PAO)
2-39. The signal officer is located in the brigade. He is responsible for all matters concerning signal operations, automation management, network management, and information security.
2-40. The SJA is located in the brigade and the brigade liaison detachment (BLD). He
2-41. The surgeon section
2-42. The medical treatment squad
2-43. The PVNTMED section
2-44. The movement control officer (MCO)
Coordinates with brigade operations for daily transportation requirements and evacuation and transfer of internees. This includes determining the transportation requirements for the evacuation of detainees from one level of internment to the next and coordinating the arrangements.
2-45. The inspector general (IG) is located in the brigade. He
Reports allegations of war crimes (from protected personnel or US soldiers) through the chain of command to the SJA or the United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIC). The responsibility for investigating alleged war crimes rests with the SJA and the criminal investigation division (CID), not the IG.
2-46. Psychological operations (PSYOP) are not part of the I/R structure; however, the PSYOP officer in charge (OIC) of the EPW/CI PSYOP team supporting I/R operations serves as the special staff officer responsible for PSYOP. The PSYOP officer advises the MP commander on the psychological impact of actions to prevent misunderstandings and disturbances by EPWs and CIs. The EPW/CI PSYOP team
NOTE: See FMs 3-05.30 and 33-1-1 for additional information about PSYOP support to I/R operations.
|SECTION III - TRAINING
2-47. The necessary care and control of housed personnel is best achieved with carefully selected and trained personnel. The specialized nature of duty at different facilities requires individuals who can be depended on to cope successfully with behavior or incidents that call for calm, fair, and immediate decisive action. These personnel must possess the highest qualities of leadership and judgment. They are required to observe rigid self-discipline and maintain a professional attitude at all times.
2-48. Personnel assigned or attached to I/R facilities are trained on the care and control of housed personnel. They are fully cognizant of the provisions of the Geneva and UN Conventions and applicable regulations as they apply to the treatment of housed personnel. A formal training program should include
2-49. The guard force should receive additional training in
2-50. Medical soldiers assigned to the facility may be required to deliver babies and care for infants and small children. Their training should include