The combat service support mission to sustain the combat power of the task force under dispersed and sometimes isolated conditions is increasingly critical to success on the battlefield. Combat service support is performed as far forward as the tactical situation permits. Weapons and systems are armed, fueled, fixed, and manned in forward positions to reduce the time required to return them to combat. The task force commander, mainly through his XO, S4, and S1, anticipates and plans requirements for CSS and employs his service support assets to ensure accomplishment of present and future missions. When possible, higher headquarters preconfigures and delivers materials before requests are generated ("push packages"), especially in the bulk resupply of Classes III, IV, and V.
The burden of CSS is removed from the company team commander, as much as possible, and placed under control of the task force. The company team commander concentrates on fighting his unit to accomplish the tactical mission. The CSS responsibility at company team level is mainly to report and request requirements, and to ensure that CSS is properly executed once it arrives in the team's area.
a. The task force commander ensures that CSS is provided, not only for his organic and attached elements, but the task force commander ensures such for any OPCON or supporting units. The task force provides mission-essential CSS to a supporting unit. The S4 coordinates other CSS for the supporting unit, and verifies who is to provide this CSS and how it is to be requested. When a large attachment joins the task force, the attachment should bring an appropriate slice of CSS assets from its parent unit. These assets are controlled by the task force S4. The attached unit leader must coordinate with the task force S1 and furnish him with a copy of his unit battle roster. Thereafter, the attached unit submits reports and requests resupply according to the task force SOP.
b. The task force combat trains CP is the focal point of combat service support for the unit. The combat trains CP, under the supervision of the S4, anticipates, requests, coordinates, and supervises execution of combat service support.
c. The three categories of CSS are logistics support, personnel service support, and health services support.
(1) The four functional areas of task force logistics are --
(2) Personnel service support includes a variety of functions that support a commander's ability to accomplish his mission and contribute to the welfare and morale of the soldier. Some major CSS personnel service functions are --
(3) Health services support includes treatment and evacuation, medical supply support, and preventive medicine.
d. The task force receives service support from various elements within and outside the task force.
(1) Within the task force. The XO, assisted by the command sergeant major, is responsible for coordinating all CSS in the task force. The S4 is responsible for the logistical support of the task force and for preparing paragraph 4 of the OPORD. He is assisted by the S4 section and the support platoon. The S1 is responsible for personnel service support within the battalion and he coordinates the actions of the medical platoon. To assist him in this effort, he has a personnel and administration center (PAC). Maintenance support is the responsibility of the battalion maintenance officer (BMO), who directs the activities of the maintenance platoon.
(2) Outside the task force. The principal source of external support to the task force is the forward support battalion (FSB). It is organized with a headquarters and headquarters detachment, a supply company, a maintenance company, and a medical company to provide support to a maneuver brigade. Additional support can be provided by the main support battalion (MSB) of the division support command (DISCOM).
The S1 section is responsible for personnel services and the general administration of the task force. The S1 is assisted by the PAC supervisor and the personnel staff NCO (PSNCO). The S1 section has personnel at both the combat trains CP and the field trains. The S1 and his staff in the combat trains CP primarily perform the critical tasks of strength accountability and casualty reporting as well as command post functions. The S1 personnel in the field trains perform replacement operations, administrative services, personnel actions, legal services, and finance services. The S1 also has primary staff responsibility for EPW operations and medical planning. He coordinates with the S2 for interrogation of prisoners and the S4 for processing captured equipment and transportation requirements. The S1 coordinates with the medical platoon leader to ensure that patient treatment and evacuation is planned and coordinated throughout the task force area.
a. The medical platoon sorts, treats, and evacuates casualties, or returns them to duty. It stocks medical supplies for the task force and provides all Class VIII support. It is also responsible for maintaining and evacuating battalion medical equipment. The medical platoon's survivability and mobility are increased by the use of armored evacuation vehicles and aid stations.
b. The medical platoon leader (a physician), with the aid of a physician's assistant (PA), operates the battalion aid station. The medical operations officer, a medical service corps officer, coordinates the operations, administration, and logistics of the medical platoon. This includes coordinating patient evacuation to the supporting medical company and providing support to company teams.
a. The S4 section is responsible for supply, transportation, and field service functions. It coordinates requisition and distribution of supplies to company supply sections and turns in captured supplies and equipment as directed. Personnel in the section are in the field trains and the combat trains CP. They are cross-trained with personnel of the S1 section in critical tasks to permit continuous operations. The S4 section is supervised by the S4, who is assisted by the battalion supply sergeant.
b. In combat, the S4 concentrates on seven classes of supply: Classes I, II, III, IV, V, VII, and IX. The support platoon leader, working with the S4 and HHC commander, coordinates the requisition, receipt, preparation, and delivery of Classes I, III, and V. The supply section coordinates the requisition, receipt, and delivery of Classes II, IV, VII, and IX.
c. The S4 section and the support platoon are responsible for obtaining water and maps. Using task force transportation, water is obtained from the water supply point in or near the BSA or from forward sources tested and approved by the medical platoon leader. Maps are stocked by the supply and service company of the main support battalion, and they are requested through the supply company of the forward support battalion. The S2 is responsible for distributing maps as required. Classified maps are obtained through G2 channels.
a. The support platoon has a headquarters section, a transportation section which includes a decontamination specialist, and mess sections. The transportation section is organized and equipped to transport fuel, ammunition, and supplies to the companies. The section normally transports a portion of the unit basic load of ammunition plus fuels and lubricants. The transportation section has a POL vehicle supervisor and, in armor battalions, an ammunition sergeant. It also has drivers assigned to operate the section's cargo vehicles. The mess section is organized and equipped to prepare meals for all elements of the task force. The support platoon also has the task force decontamination vehicle and operator to assist in unit decontamination.
b. Although the support platoon leader works for the S4, he is under the supervision of the HHC commander in the field trains. The platoon leader is assisted by the support platoon sergeant, who is also the truck master of the transportation section.
a. The maintenance platoon performs unit maintenance on all task force equipment except COMSEC and medical equipment. The platoon leader is the battalion maintenance officer. He is assisted by the maintenance technician and the battalion motor sergeant.
b. In armor and mechanized infantry battalions, all organizational maintenance assets, including communication-electronics equipment maintenance, are consolidated in the maintenance platoon. The responsibility for operator and crew maintenance, however, remains with the companies.
c. The administration section maintains Class IX (repair parts) and The Army Maintenance Management Systems (TAMMS) records. The prescribed load list (PLL) stocks are maintained for each company at the UMCP and managed by the administration section's PLL clerks. To facilitate rapid repair, selected high usage PLL items may be on the tracked vehicles supporting a company team.
d. The recovery support section provides limited welding, metalworking, and backup recovery support to the maintenance teams.
e. The maintenance services section provides maintenance support to the rear elements of the task force, plus backup support to company maintenance teams.
f. Company maintenance teams provide maintenance support to each of the maneuver companies. This support includes automotive, turret, and communications-electronics maintenance, as well as recovery.
g. Based on the weapons systems within a company team, maintenance teams are task organized by the BMO. Insofar as possible, a maintenance team will habitually support the same company. When tracked vehicles from the maintenance team are positioned forward of the UMCP, the company commander establishes priorities of work and positions the team (usually accomplished through the unit 1SG). When a company is detached from the battalion, the BMO detaches a supporting maintenance package that includes the personnel, tools, test equipment, and PLL stocks necessary to support the company.
CSS planning is conducted to ensure support during all phases of an operation. The CSS plan is developed concurrently with the tactical plan. Supporting CSS plans areas detailed as planning time permits. Using SOPs and planning for contingencies will greatly assist the CSS staff officer in the planning efforts. Task force orders address only deviations from the routine planning priorities established in the SOP.
a. CSS functions are anticipative in nature and are performed as far forward as the tactical situation permits. Support must be continuous, using immediately available assets. Ammunition, fuels, parts, end items, maintenance personnel, and replacements are "pushed" forward to the combat trains, unit maintenance collection point, and logistical release points (LRPs).
b. CSS planning is a continuous function. Coordination among tactical planners and those planning combat support and CSS is essential and addresses all factors that can have a significant effect on the tactical mission.
c. CSS staff officers and commanders must act rather than react to support requirements. Personal involvement, remaining abreast of the tactical situation, and on-the-scene appraisal of the situation by CSS personnel is critical to mission accomplishment.
a. To ensure effective support, CSS operators and planners must understand the commander's tactical plans and intent. They must know --
b. After analyzing the concept of operations, CSS planners must be able to accurately predict support requirements. They determine --
c. Using the requirements, support capabilities are assessed:
d. Based on this analysis, CSS plans are developed that apply resources against requirements. See Appendix B and FM 101-10-1.
a. If offensive momentum is not maintained, the enemy may recover from the shock of the first assault, gain the initiative, and mount a successful counterattack. Therefore, the CSS priority must be to maintain the momentum of the attack.
b. A successful attack may develop into an exploitation or a pursuit, and CSS planners must be flexible enough to support either type of operation. The following techniques and considerations apply to CSS offensive planning.
(1) Position essential CSS assets, such as ammunition, POL, and maintenance, well forward in the combat trains, and ensure that basic loads remain replenished.
(2) Establish maintenance priorities based on the commander's guidance or intent and the factors of METT-T. Priorities may change as different phases of an operation are completed.
(3) Recover damaged vehicles only to the main supply route for further recovery by TF assets.
(4) Plan for increased consumption of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL).
(5) Push planned and preconfigured logistic packages of essential CSS items.
(6) Plan for increased vehicular maintenance, especially over rough terrain.
(7) Make maximum use of company maintenance teams and maintenance support teams in forward areas.
(8) Request unit distribution at forward locations.
(9) Increase use of meals-ready-to-eat (MRE).
(10) Use captured enemy supplies and equipment, particularly support vehicles and POL. (Before use, test for contamination.)
(11) Suspend most field service functions except airdrop and graves registration.
(12) Prepare for increased casualties and additional evacuation and graves registration requirements.
(13) Select supply routes, logistics release points, and subsequent trains locations based on map reconnaissance.
(14) Plan and coordinate EPW operations; expect more EPWs.
(15) Plan replacement operations based on known and projected losses.
(16) Consider the increasing distances and longer travel times to ammunition supply points (ASPs) and ammunition transfer points (ATPs).
(17) Ensure that CSS preparations for the attack do not compromise tactical plans.
c. These considerations apply to some degree to all offensive operations. The change from one type of operation to another, such as from a hasty attack to a pursuit, does not require a major shift in CSS plans and procedures. However, the priorities and requirements for support may change. The XO, assisted primarily by the S4, organizes the task force's CSS assets to permit uninterrupted support. The main purpose of CSS in the offense is to maintain the momentum of the attack.
a. The immediate purpose of the defense is to cause an enemy attack to fail or, in contrast to offensive operations, to break the momentum of the attack.
b. As in offensive operations, perhaps the most critical time in the defense is the preparation stage. General considerations to be made in preparing for defensive operations include the following.
(2) Resupply during limited visibility to reduce the chance of enemy interference.
(3) Plan to reorganize to reconstitute lost CSS capability. Identify personnel from the field trains as potential replacements to reestablish the lost capability.
(4) Use maintenance support teams in the UMCP to reduce the need to recover equipment to the brigade support area (BSA).
(5) Consider the additional transportation requirements for movement of Class IV barrier material, mines, and prepositioned ammunition, plus the CSS requirements of additional engineer units assigned for preparation of the defense.
(6) In defensive operations, pre-position ammunition on occupied and prepared positions. However, plans must be made for the control of this ammunition.
CSS elements conduct sustainment operations continuously; when maneuver companies are not fighting, task force CSS elements take advantage of the lull to prepare the maneuver elements for the next operation.
a. Maintenance, repair work, and normal services are done whenever the opportunity exists. Repairing damaged equipment and returning it to the fight requires early diagnosis and identification of faults and is done as far forward as possible.
b. Emergency resupply is conducted when needed, but routine resupply is usually conducted at night. Vulnerability and limited cross-country mobility of CSS vehicles dictate that LOGPACs use existing roads at night.
c. Continuous CSS operations require careful personnel management. Routine details, perimeter guard, and operator maintenance use support personnel time not spent on the road. A carefully planned and strictly enforced rest-work schedule or sleep plan is necessary to ensure continuous capability.
a. A logistics estimate is an analysis of logistic factors affecting mission accomplishment. Logistics planners use these estimates to recommend courses of action and to develop plans to support selected concepts of operation. The key concerns of task force logistics planners are the status of supply Classes III, IV, and V; and the operational status of tanks, BFVs, and other combat vehicles.
b. Logistics estimates at the battalion level are rarely written. They are frequently formulated in terms that answer the following questions.
The organization of trains varies according to the mission and support assets assigned to the task force.
a. Trains may be centralized in one location (unit trains), or they may be echeloned in three or more locations (echeloned trains) as shown in Figure 7-1. Unit trains are formed in assembly areas and during extended tactical marches. Forming unit trains with a centralized rear CP provides ease of coordination and control, and increases trains' security. Unit trains are controlled by the S4 with the assistance of the S1.
b. The task force CSS assets are normally echeloned into company combat trains, battalion combat trains, and battalion field trains. The battalion combat trains are organized to provide immediate critical support for the combat operation. Field trains are normally in the BSA and under the control of the HHC commander, who coordinates with the forward support battalion commander for security and positioning.
c. The most forward CSS elements are the company combat trains. A medical evacuation team (routinely attached to the company) and the company maintenance team tracked vehicles, when forward, form the company trains. The company first sergeant positions these elements, tasks the medical evacuation team, and establishes priority of work for the company maintenance team.
d. When operating in echeloned trains, the company supply sergeant usually operates from the field trains. Coordination between the company supply sergeant and the first sergeant is conducted through the combat trains CP to the HHC commander over the A/L net, and is supplemented by face-to-face coordination during LOGPAC operations.
e. The battalion combat trains include the combat trains CP, medical platoon elements, decontamination assets, all uploaded Class III and V vehicles, elements of the communications platoon, and the nearby UMCP, with some supporting elements from the FSB. The combat trains are controlled by the S4, assisted by the S1. Elements of the combat trains operate on the A/L net and, when possible, are linked to the combat trains CP by landline.
f. The battalion combat trains should be close enough to the FLOT to be responsive to the forward units, but not within range of enemy direct fire. The combat trains can expect to move frequently to remain in supporting distance of the combat elements. The following factors govern the positioning of the combat trains.
(1) Communications are required between the combat trains CP, the main CP, the field trains CP, brigade rear CP, and forward units.
(2) Room for dispersion and cover and concealment from both air and ground observation are desired.
(3) The ground must support vehicle traffic.
(4) A suitable helicopter landing site should be nearby.
(5) Routes to logistical release points or to company positions must be available.
(6) Movement into and out of the area must not be restricted.
g. Built-up areas are good locations for trains. They provide cover and concealment for vehicles and shelter that enhances light discipline during maintenance. When built-up areas are used, battalion trains elements should occupy buildings near the edge of the area to preclude being trapped in the center.
h. The UMCP is established and supervised by the BMO to provide forward maintenance support to the task force. It is normally located near the battalion combat trains. The UMCP and battalion combat trains may combine to form a base cluster for defense.
i. The field trains are usually in the BSA and are controlled by the HHC commander. Generally, the field trains include the PAC, the mess sections, the company supply sections, the HHC command post, and the remainder of those elements of the maintenance and support platoons that are not forward.
j. The BSA is that portion of the brigade rear area occupied by the brigade rear CP, the FSB, and the task force field trains. CSS assets in the BSA include elements from the FSB, maneuver and combat support unit field trains, and selected corps (COSCOM) and division (DISCOM) resources, as required.
a. The most efficient resupply of forward task force units is accomplished by logistics packages (LOGPACs). LOGPACs are organized in the field trains by the company supply sergeant under the supervision of the HHC commander and the support platoon leader. LOGPACs are organized for each company team and separate element in the task force and moved forward at least daily for routine resupply. When possible, all LOGPACs are moved forward in a march unit, under the control of the support platoon leader. Special LOGPACs are organized and dispatched as required by the tactical situation and logistical demands.
b. The task force S4 must plan and coordinate LOGPAC operations to ensure that they fully support the commander's tactical plans.
c. Task force SOP establishes the standard LOGPAC. Normally, a company team LOGPAC includes the following:
(1) Unit supply truck. This vehicle contains the Class I requirements based on the ration cycle -- normally, one hot meal and two MREs per man. The supply truck tows a water trailer and carries some full water cans for direct exchange. In addition, the truck carries any Class II supplies requested by the unit, incoming mail, and other items required by the unit. The truck may also carry replacement personnel.
(2) POL trucks. Bulk fuel and packaged POL products are on these vehicles.
(3) Ammunition trucks. These vehicles contain a mix of ammunition for the weapons systems of the company team. Unit SOP establishes a standard load; reports and projected demands may require changes to this standard load.
(4) Vehicles carrying additional supplies and replacements. These vehicles join the LOGPAC as coordinated by the support platoon leader and supply sergeant.
d. LOGPACs for platoon-sized attachments are usually loaded on a single truck. Water and Class III resupply is often accomplished by using 5-gallon cans and pods mounted on trailers.
e. When the company LOGPAC has been formed, it is ready to move forward under the control of the supply sergeant. The support platoon leader normally organizes a convoy for movement of all company LOGPACs under his control; in emergencies, he dispatches unit LOGPACs individually. The convoy may contain additional vehicles, such as a maintenance vehicle with Class IX to move to the UMCP, or an additional ammunition or fuel vehicle for the combat trains. The LOGPACs move along the MSR to a logistics release point (LRP), where the unit first sergeant or a unit guide takes control of the company LOGPAC.
f. From the LRP, the company first sergeant or guide controls the LOGPAC and conducts resupply as described in FM 71-1. The unit first sergeant informs his supply sergeant of requirements for the next LOGPAC. The supply sergeant collects outgoing mail, personnel, and equipment for movement to the rear. The LOGPAC then follows unit SOP and returns to the LRP or to the field trains.
g. LRP locations are determined by the S4, based on the tactical situation. They should be well forward and easily located. Normally, two to four LRPs are planned. LRPs, as well as the MSR, combat trains, and field trains locations, are included on the operations overlay, if possible. The combat trains CP notifies subordinates and the field trains CP, well in advance, which LRP(s) will be used. The LOGPAC convoy arrival time at the LRP and the length of time it remains are normally established by SOP. If the tactical situation dictates otherwise, the S4 must determine the time and notify units accordingly. LOGPACs may be scheduled to arrive shortly after arrival at a BP or intermediate objective. M1 units may also require more frequent Class III resupply. Subordinates must ensure that the resupply vehicles are returned to the LRP as soon as possible so that the vehicles can return to the field trains and begin preparation for the next mission. Class III and V vehicles never sit empty. If the LOGPAC cannot be completed on schedule, the combat trains CP must be notified.
h. At least one senior representative from the combat trains (S4, S1, or senior NCO) should be present at the LRP while it is in effect. His purpose is to meet with the unit first sergeants and support platoon leader for coordination of logistical requirements, to ensure that the LOGPAC release and return takes place efficiently. A brief meeting is normally held immediately before the first sergeant picks up his LOGPAC. Coordination may include --
i. The company supply sergeant or support platoon leader moves the LOGPAC from the LRP back to the field trains. The supply sergeant and support platoon leader then begin organization of the next LOGPAC.
j. Resupply of the scout and mortar platoons, the main CP, combat trains, and attached support units must be planned and coordinated. The HHC first sergeant coordinates and supervises resupply of these elements. The HHC first sergeant operates near the task force main CP when forward and at the field trains CP upon completion of daily resupply.
(1) The platoon sergeant of these elements or senior NCO at a facility must report his requirements to the HHC first sergeant or to the combat trains CP. The most desirable method of resupply is to form small LOGPACs for these elements, which the platoon sergeant picks up at the LRP in the same manner as a company first sergeant. Attachments larger than a platoon must come to the task force with sufficient CSS vehicles to carry their LOGPACs.
(2) In some cases, the HHC first sergeant delivers the LOGPAC to the main CP, combat trains, and scout and mortar platoons. Attachments can receive resupply at one of these locations or as previously coordinated.
(3) Another option is for attachments to be resupplied from a nearby company team LOGPAC. The S4 coordinates this resupply before the LOGPACs are dispatched.
(4) Resupply operations for the scout platoon pose several unique problems. Special procedures may be necessary to resupply the scout platoon, including:
k. Units in direct support or under OPCON of the task force are responsible for the coordination of resupply of their elements operating forward with the task force, except as noted.
(1) The ADA battalion or battery commander coordinates for the task force to resupply ADA units in direct support with some classes of supply. This may be directed in higher headquarters SOPs and usually includes Class I, III, and V, and common item IX.
(2) The task force provides engineer materials (Classes IV and V) to supporting engineer units. Additionally, engineer units under OPCON of the task force receive Class I, III, V, and IX support to the maximum extent possible. This support is coordinated through or directed by brigade before the OPCON directive becomes effective.
(3) The parent unit S4 or company commander of the supporting element coordinates with the task force S4 or HHC commander on resupply of the forward elements. Normally, the supporting units' resupply elements assemble in the BSA and move to the task force field trains area. The HHC commander then dispatches these resupply elements forward, along with the task force LOGPACs, to the LRP. At the LRP, the platoon sergeant of the forward supporting element takes control of the resupply element. These resupply elements maintain contact with the combat trains CP while forward in the task force area. If coordinated between the supporting parent unit and the task force, the resupply of these forward elements is directly managed by the task force. The parent unit must provide the additional logistical assets necessary to supplement the task force's capabilities. No matter how support was coordinated, any element within the task force area of operation must either be under the task force commander's control or at least remain in contact with the task force combat trains CP, to avoid interfering with task force maneuver.
l. While the LOGPACs are the preferred methods of resupply, there will be times when other methods of resupply are required.
(1) Resupply from the combat trains (emergency resupply). The combat trains has a limited amount of Class III and V for emergency resupply. The S4 coordinates emergency resupply from the combat trains and then refills or replaces the combat trains' assets.
(2) Pre-stocking. Pre-stocking is the placing and concealing of supplies on the battlefield. This is normally done during defensive operations when supplies are placed in subsequent battle positions.
(3) Mobile pre-positioning. This is similar to pre-stocking except that the supplies remain on the truck, which is positioned forward on the battlefield.
a. Types. There are two types of cross-attachment that require different CSS considerations -- between task forces and within a task force.
(1) Cross-attachment between task forces. When a company is cross-attached, the CSS necessary to support it is also cross-attached. This slice is established by higher headquarters SOP and usually consists of medical and maintenance support and supply assets for Classes I, III, V, and IX (see Figure 7-2). Mess support cross-attachment is coordinated on a case-by-case basis. The cross-attachment of CSS assets is between task forces -- these assets do not belong to the cross-attached company. If the company is employed pure, these assets are used to support this company. However, if this company is further task organized, the support assets may need to be task organized as well to provide the most efficient support within the task force.
(a) Mess support and Class I. Companies are supported by a company mess team from the battalion mess section. The company mess team and its organic equipment may be detached to support the detached company. Under the combat field feeding system (CFFS), when a company is detached, only one cook and the equipment necessary to transport prepared meals are detached for mess support.
(b) Class III. Fully loaded trucks from the support platoon, sufficient to refuel the company, are cross-attached. Usually, this means that for a mechanized infantry company, one tank and pump unit is needed; for a tank company, two heavy expanded mobility tactical trucks (HEMTTs) are needed.
(c) Class V. Ammunition vehicles are cross-attached from the support platoon. These trucks should be loaded, prepared for the next LOGPAC operation. Usually, a mechanized infantry company requires two 5-ton trucks with trailers; a tank company requires two HEMTTs.
(d) Medical. The medical aid/evacuation team that supports a company remains with the company when it is detached or cross-attached.
(e) Maintenance and Class IX. One company maintenance team and a PLL clerk with a PLL truck and trailer are cross-attached to support the company. Selected high-demand repair parts are routinely carried on all company maintenance teams' tracked vehicles.
(2) Cross-attachment within a task force.
(a) When company teams are formed, the CSS requirements for each of the teams change from those of the base company organization. For example, a tank-heavy team (two tank platoons, one mechanized infantry platoon) has more personnel than the tank company and has different vehicles. These changes require support changes in the following areas:
(b) Task force CSS planners task-organize support assets to ensure that adequate bulk fueling capability and materiel-handling equipment are supporting the company teams. The S4's logistics estimate is the key in this decision-making process. Additionally, the BMO may direct cross-attachments between company maintenance teams to facilitate forward repairs of all types of vehicles in the company teams, but this is less likely. Normally, the BMO directs that the attached company maintenance team continue to support the attached company (now a company team), and that repairs of the cross-attached platoon(s) vehicles be done in the UMCP by the wheeled assets of either the attached company maintenance team or the attached element from the maintenance services section.
b. Coordination and Control. The coordination requirements for cross-attachment of CSS assets are established in higher headquarters' SOP. Usually, the coordination is between task force XOs using the brigade A/L net. This coordination should establish the numbers and types of supporting assets to be cross-attached, the time the attachment will occur, and the location(s) to which the attachments will move. Additional coordination, such as signals, signs and countersigns, and the requirements for guides, is also conducted as necessary.
c. Movement. Movement from one task force area to the other may be done in one of two principal methods.
(1) Movement under control of the cross-attached company commander. If the cross-attached company is required to displace from its present location, the supporting CSS assets maybe assembled to move with this unit.
(a) Advantages. It provides protection for the displacing CSS assets; it allows immediate refueling to the unit after its move; and it simplifies link-up with the receiving unit.
(b) Disadvantages. Time must be allowed for the company and the CSS assets to link up; and those elements positioned in the field trains may move a long distance, only to end up at another nearby field trains location.
(2) Movement by element. This method is frequently employed when the cross-attached company does not have to displace. In this case the company maintenance team wheeled vehicles, along with the PLL truck and any additional maintenance services section support, displace from one UMCP to another. The cross-attached support platoon elements displace from one field trains area to the other. These moves are made under the control of the senior NCO, who reports to the BMO or HHC commander at the gaining unit location.
(a) Advantages. Assembly of the company and its supporting elements is not required; and the distance the field trains elements move is probably short.
(b) Disadvantages. No protection is provided to the moving elements; and the attachment of CSS elements may occur piecemeal.
a. CSS elements behind the FLOT form base clusters and must be prepared to defend themselves against guerrillas and partisans, and forces that have broken through or bypassed the defense.
b. The S4 is responsible for trains security when operating in a unit trains configuration. When trains are echeloned, the S4 is responsible for securing the combat trains, and the HHC commander is responsible for securing the field trains. If the task force commander collocates his field trains with the BSA, the HHC commander coordinates with the FSB commander and brigade rear CP to integrate the task force field trains into the BSA defensive plan. In all trains areas, a perimeter defense is normally planned. Elements in the trains are assigned a specific sector to defend. Mutually supporting positions that dominate likely avenues of approach are selected for vehicles armed with heavy machine guns. Reaction forces and OPs are established, based on the unit SOP. To enhance security, an alarm or warning system is arranged. Sector sketches, fire plans, and obstacle plans should be prepared. Rehearsals are conducted to ensure that all personnel know the part they play in the defensive scheme. The OIC at each location establishes a shift schedule for operations and security on a 24-hour basis.
a. CSS command and control is the responsibility of the task force XO. The S4 routinely coordinates all logistics operations, based on the XO's guidance. Command and control facilities are the combat trains CP and the field trains CP.
b. The combat trains CP includes the S4 CP carrier (M577) with enough S1 and S4 personnel cross-trained to ensure continuous operation, and the communications platoon M577 and personnel. The combat trains must stay abreast of the tactical situation and task organization; monitor the TF command net to identify CSS requirements; and receive requests, reports, and requirements from TF subordinate elements. Subordinate requirements are analyzed, consolidated, and forwarded to the field trains CP or to the appropriate supporting agency. The HHC commander coordinates and directs elements in the field trains to take action to meet the forward units' requirements.
c. The field trains CP, established by the HHC commander, is the coordination and control center for the support platoon, PAC, maintenance platoon (-), and the battalion and company supply sections. Personnel from these sections operate the field trains CP under supervision of the HHC commander. The HHC commander coordinates all requirements for task force organic and attached elements with all units in the BSA and parent units as necessary.
a. At task force level, CSS communications may be by any combination of FM radio, RISE, courier, or wire. The A/L radio net is used for most CSS traffic. For lengthy reports, use messenger, wire, or radio teletypewriter (RATT).
b. The combat trains CP is the NCS for the A/L net. The S4, S1, HHC commander, BMO, support platoon leader, medical platoon leader, company first sergeants, and others (as required) operate in the task force A/L net. The combat trains CP also operates in the brigade A/L net and in the task force command net (see Chapter 2).
c. Communications are critical to expedite the CSS effort. Unit first sergeants must report their losses and requirements as soon as practical. When use of radio is not possible, messages are sent with resupply or evacuation vehicles. The combat trains CP and field trains CP maintain control of vehicles moving forward to the LRPs. Task force SOP establishes procedures for resupply without request in the event communications fail.
The supply system provides many types of supplies to the task force. The most important of these are ammunition, POL, and repair parts for weapons systems. To ensure continuous support, supplies are provided as far forward as the tactical situation will permit.
a. The task force always maintains some combat-essential supplies and repair parts. These are called combat loads, basic loads, and prescribed load lists. The minimum stockage level is normally directed by division or higher. The purpose of these loads is to enable a unit to sustain itself in combat for a limited period, should there be an interruption in the resupply system. This period normally is 15 days for general supplies and repair parts and 3 to 4 days for Classes I, III, and V.
b. The task force uses two methods to replenish its stocks.
(1) Supply point distribution. The task force, using organic transportation, goes to the supply point to pick up supplies. This is the normal method used by the task force support platoon to pickup supplies.
(2) Unit distribution. Supplies are delivered to a unit by transportation assets other than its own. The task force uses unit distribution to resupply its subordinate elements. When feasible, supplies are shipped directly from the issuing agency as far forward as possible, provided that the receiving unit has the materiel-handling equipment necessary to handle the shipping containers. This means that some supplies may be issued directly to the task force from COSCOM or even theater Army level, especially Class III and VII. This issue usually occurs no farther forward than the field trains.
c. The task force uses the established requisition channels, regardless of the issue method chosen by higher headquarters.
d. The S4 section is organized to process supply requests and to receive, issue, and temporarily store supplies. Distribution priorities for items in short supply are determined by the commander, based on recommendations by the S4 and the operational requirements of the task force.
Supplies are grouped into ten classes (Class I through X) and miscellaneous supplies.
a. Class I. Subsistence items.
(1) Class I is automatically requested at brigade based on the daily strength report. The combat trains CP forwards the strength report to the field trains CP, which instructs the mess section to prepare the rations. The support platoon gets subsistence from the FSB supply company's Class I point in the BSA. Rations are usually prepared in the field trains and delivered to the companies and attached units as part of the LOGPAC. MREs stored on combat vehicles are eaten only when daily Class I resupply cannot be accomplished.
(2) Water is not a Class I supply item, but it is normally delivered with Class I. The HHC commander or support platoon leader coordinates with the FSB to pick up water from the MSB water supply point. Water is delivered to the units using water trailers. Also, forward water points can be tested and approved by the battalion surgeon. Each vehicle in the task force should carry water cans to be refilled or exchanged during Class I resupply and LOGPAC operations.
b. Class II. Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, organizational tool sets and kits, handtools, and administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment (including MOPP suits and decontamination items). The S4 section coordinates for supply sergeants to pickup Class II items from the FSB supply company in the BSA before normal LOGPAC operations. Expendable items, such as soap, toilet tissue, insecticide, clothing, and TA-50, are provided during the LOGPAC operations.
c. Class III. POL (fuel, lubricants, and hydraulic oil).
(1) Brigade S4's POL forecasts form the basis for division and corps stockage levels. POL is normally obtained by the battalion transportation section from the supply company's Class III supply point in the brigade support area. A formal request is not needed to obtain bulk fuel at a supply point. DISCOM fuel vehicles may be directed to deliver fuel to the combat trains area.
(2) Requests from companies are not required for POL and package products resupply. POL tankers move forward with each LOGPAC, with POL packaged products carried on each tanker. Requests are submitted to the combat trains CP for unusual requirements.
d. Class IV. Construction materials including all fortification and barrier materials. Intensively managed construction and fortification materials are requested through the FSB and normally delivered by DISCOM or COSCOM transportation. Materials are carried as far forward as possible to reduce handling and should be prepackaged or preconfigured to suit the mission. Combat vehicles carry small amounts of these materials into battle. These combat loads can consist of wire, pickets, and lumber, as designated by unit SOP.
e. Class V. Ammunition of all types. Class V supply is based on a required supply rate (RSR) and a controlled supply rate (CSR). The CSR is based on availability, and may therefore be lower than the RSR.
(1) The task force receives ammunition from the ammunition transfer point (ATP) in the BSA, which is operated by the FSB supply company. A backup ATP in the division support area is operated by the MSB supply and service company. The corps ASP is normally positioned near the division rear boundary. Both COSCOM and DISCOM trucks and helicopters can deliver ammunition directly to the battalion combat trains, if required.
(2) When ammunition resupply is required, the support platoon prepares a request for an amount based on unit expenditures (or projected requirements, in the case of prestocks) and the CSR. The request is validated by the division ammunition officer in the BSA. The ammunition is then picked up and transported to the field trains, where it remains loaded until needed for company resupply.
f. Class VI. Personal demand and morale items, such as candy, cigarettes, soap, and cameras (nonmilitary sales items), and sundry packs. Requests for Class VI support are submitted by the S1 through supply channels when an Army exchange is not available. Resupply flow is the same as for Class I resupply.
g. Class VII. Major end items, such as launchers, tanks, and other vehicles. Major end items are issued in combat based on battle loss reports. Large items may be delivered by COSCOM directly to the task force trains. The HHC commander sends ready-to-fight weapons systems forward with the LOGPAC. Smaller items are picked up by the support platoon at the distribution point in the brigade support area.
h. Class VIII. Medical materiel, including repair parts peculiar to medical equipment. Medical supplies are obtained from the medical company in the brigade support area. Normally, these supplies are distributed by medical company ambulances returning from the BSA to the aid station and from the aid station to the company team by returning task force ambulances. Packaged and inventoried combat aid kits are replaced for used ones at the aid station. The medical platoon leader coordinates with the S4 for additional supplies as required or based on the S1 loss estimate and projection for mass casualties situations.
i. Class IX. Repair parts and components, including kits, assemblies, and subassemblies -- repairable or unrepairable -- that are required for maintenance support of all equipment.
(1) The task force stocks repair parts based on a combat PLL. The maintenance platoon administration section manages repair parts.
(2) Repair parts are issued in response to a specific request or by repairable (direct) exchange. The task force obtains repair parts from the Class IX supply point in the BSA. Parts are moved forward during routine LOGPAC operations or as required to the UMCP. The maintenance platoon requests Class IX items (less repairable exchange), and major Class IX subassemblies, such as engines and transmissions, by submitting requests to the maintenance company of the FSB. Repairable exchange for selected items (including components and subassemblies) is handled as a simple exchange with the MST of the unserviceable item, with an attached request for issue or turn-in, for a serviceable item. In combat, exchange and cannibalization is the norm to obtain critical Class IX supplies.
j. Class X. Material to support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development (not included in Classes I through IX). Class X items are requested and obtained by the S4 based on civil-military requirements. Specific instructions for request and issue of Class X supplies are provided by division or higher.
a. While all classes of supply are affected by night combat, Classes I and III present the most significant problems. Class I supply points and kitchens must operate around the clock. At night, vehicles tend to operate in lower gear or idle for longer periods than during day, thereby requiring more fuel and oil.
b. Other items of supply for night operations vary in demand depending on weather, terrain, and type of operation under consideration. For most tactical operations at night, units must expect an increased demand for --
Maintenance involves inspecting, testing, servicing, repairing, requisitioning, and recovering. Repair and recovery are completed as far forward as possible, at the lowest capable echelon. When equipment cannot be repaired on site, it is moved only as far as necessary for repair. When all maintenance requirements of the task force cannot be met, the XO determines maintenance support priorities for subordinate units based on operational requirements of the task force and on recommendations of the S4 and BMO.
The following are explanations of some common maintenance terms.
a. Maintenance Support Team (MST). A mobile team from the FSB maintenance company organized and equipped to provide forward support.
b. Unit Maintenance Collection Point (UMCP). A facility operated by the battalion maintenance platoon. It is the first point to which task force maintenance teams recover equipment, and at which some direct support maintenance is performed.
c. Controlled Exchange. The removal of serviceable repair parts and components from unserviceable but repairable vehicles (end items) to get a like vehicle (end item) operational.
d. Cannibalization. The removal of serviceable and unserviceable parts and components from damaged equipment. Cannibalization is aggressively used to keep the maximum number of combat systems in the battle.
e. Battlefield Damage Assessment and Repair. The act of inspecting battle damage to determine its extent, classifying the type of repairs required, and determining the maintenance activity best suited to accomplish the repair. Battlefield damage repair involves the immediate repair of equipment by field-expedient methods.
f. Company Maintenance Team (CMT). A team from the maintenance platoon that is organized and equipped by modified table of organization and equipment (MTOE) to provide forward unit maintenance support. It operates with the company and from the UMCP. These teams are tailored by the BMO to provide support according to the mix of weapons systems within a company team. Normally, the team deploys a recovery vehicle and a maintenance track forward with the company while the remainder of the team remains in the UMCP.
The Army maintenance system consists of three levels of maintenance: unit, intermediate, and depot.
a. Unit. Unit maintenance consists of preventive maintenance tasks performed by the operator and crew and those performed by unit mechanics. Unit mechanics isolate faults with test equipement, make visual inspection, make minor adjustments, and repair end items by exchanging faulty modules and components. These actions can be performed on site or in the UMCP. Unit mechanics also perform recovery tasks.
b. Intermediate. Intermediate maintenance can be either direct support or general support.
(1) Direct support. DS mechanics diagnose and isolate equipment or module failure, adjust and align modules and components, and repair defective end items. Maintenance support teams (MSTs), from the FSB operate from the UMCP. If equipment cannot be repaired in the UMCP because of time constraints, workload, or the tactical situation, it is recovered to the FSB maintenance company in the BSA for repair.
(2) General support. GS maintenance involves repair of modules and components by replacing internal pieces or parts, and repair of end items involving time-consuming tasks. GS is provided by division and corps in support of the maintenance system.
c. Depot. Depot maintenance personnel rebuild end items, modules, components, and assemblies; perform cyclic overhaul; perform inspections; and complete modifications requiring extensive disassembly or elaborate testing.
a. Combat power is maximized when disabled equipment is repaired as far forward and as quickly as possible. The BMO, in coordination with the XO, directs the maintenance effort for the task force by using established time guidelines and by coordinating maintenance actions.
b. Battle damage assessment and diagnosis indicate repair time. An item is repaired on site or recovered directly to the appropriate maintenance echelon in the appropriate support area based on --
c. Maintenance time guidelines establish the maximum time that unserviceable equipment will remain in various support areas. Table 7-1 lists typical maintenance time guidelines. These times are flexible and should not be considered restrictive.
The following discussion of battlefield maintenance concepts places the various maintenance echelons into proper perspective. The discussion illustrates how echelons overlap to provide continuous maintenance support to the maneuver units.
a. The BMO task-organizes the maintenance platoon based on his analysis of current and anticipated requirements. He is concerned with providing the appropriate support at each of three locations: the maneuver company, the UMCP, and the field trains.
b. Normally, the BMO positions CMT recovery vehicles and M113's with crews to support each company. This provides a quick fix capability for those items that can be repaired in less than 2 hours and recovery capability for those items requiring more extensive repairs. The remainder of the CMT operates from the UMCP under the control of the BMO. The entire company maintenance team may go forward when the situation permits, to provide maximum support forward.
c. The UMCP is normally task organized with the maintenance platoon headquarters (-), one PLL truck from the administration section, the remaining VTRs from the recovery section, track automotive and turret repair teams from the service section, the wheeled-vehicle assets from the company maintenance teams, and the DS MST. The task organization of the UMCP is modified, based on the BMO's analysis of the maintenance requirements and the tactical situation. The UMCP cannot become a collection point for nonoperational vehicles to the extent that it cannot move with an hour's notice. Anything that cannot be repaired in the UMCP or that cannot be towed by UMCP assets is recovered to the field trains or directly to the FSB maintenance company in the BSA.
d. The remainder of the maintenance platoon is in the field trains under the control of the battalion motor sergeant.
e. The battalion maintenance platoon organizes to support cross-attachment as well as pure battalion operations.
(1) To support this concept, the administration section configures four PLL trucks and trailers to carry the PLL needed to support one maneuver company each. These vehicles also transport enough packaged POL to support repair operations. One of the remaining PLL trucks and trailers is configured to carry the PLL associated with HHC tracked vehicles, and, in mechanized infantry only, antiarmor company. The remaining PLL truck and trailer is configured to carry the PLL for the battalion's wheeled vehicles; it operates from the field trains.
(2) Additionally, some high-demand, low-volume parts are carried on the company maintenance team's tracked vehicles. The selection of parts that are carried forward on the tracked vehicles, as well as the breakout of parts to be carried on each PLL truck and trailer, should be addressed in the battalion maintenance platoon SOP.
(3) Direct support maintenance element priorities are set by the BMO. Since the maintenance elements are equipped and trained to support the unit, task-organizing direct support maintenance assets is not routinely done. PLL parts, special tools, and test sets are not easily split.
f. The CMT tracked vehicles are forward in the company trains. These vehicles carry the tool boxes, some unit-level technical manuals, and a limited number of special tools and repair parts. (M1-M2 test equipment normally remains at UMCP because of its size: it may be sent forward as needed, based on the BMO's and CMT's assessments.) The CMT usually repairs the damage on-site if the repair can be accomplished within 2 hours.
g. If a damaged vehicle cannot be repaired within 2 hours, it is recovered to the UMCP or the field trains. However, before a recovery vehicle is committed, other recovery means are attempted. The CMT recovers the vehicle only as far as a collection point, or the main supply route (MSR).
h. The damaged vehicles recovered to the UMCP are repaired by maintenance platoon elements or MSTs from the FSB maintenance company. When not involved in on-site repairs, the company maintenance teams may also repair vehicles in the UMCP. This is especially true of work requiring diagnostic test equipment that cannot be taken into the combat positions.
i. Vehicles that cannot be repaired within 6 hours, or that would otherwise overload the capability of the UMCP, are recovered to the field trains or directly to the FSB maintenance company collection point for repair. This recovery may be accomplished by the company maintenance team vehicle, tracked, recovery (VTR); by the company maintance team VTR to a collection point or MSR, then by a maintenance platoon VTR; or by a combination of VTR and heavy equipment transporters (HETs). The BMO coordinates and directs the method to be used. The use of HETs is the preferred, but they are restricted by road requirements and availability. HETs are requested through the FSB maintenance company. Some crew members accompany the vehicle to the rear to assist mechanics in the repair of the vehicle and return it to the unit when repaired. They also man operational weapons systems on the vehicle to provide additional security to rear areas. Communications-electronic equipment installed in the vehicle is evacuated with the vehicle. Crewmen not accompanying the vehicle remove personal equipment and any special equipment before the vehicle leaves the area.
j. The UMCP usually displaces with the other elements of the combat trains. During periods of frequent displacement, the BMO may direct that the UMCP displace by echelon. In this case, some assets of the maintenance platoon, including the BMO, complete repair on vehicles at the old UMCP before displacing forward to the new location. Maintenance platoon assets not involved in repairs move with the remainder of the combat trains and establish the forward UMCP.
k. During rapid forward moves, such as in the exploitation, the UMCP conducts only essential repairs and simple recovery. Other disabled vehicles are taken to collection points on an MSR and remain to be repaired or evacuated. Field trains and the maintenance company of the FSB displace forward to subsequent locations. The BMO coordinates the repair or evacuation with the battalion motor sergeant in the field trains.
l. In the field trains, remaining elements of the battalion maintenance platoon perform other tracked and wheeled vehicle maintenance and Class IX resupply. The battalion motor sergeant coordinates requirements with the HHC commander and with the maintenance company of the FSB. He also coordinates maintenance requirements with the parent headquarters of any attached or supporting elements working with the task force.
a. The following techniques may be used during night maintenance operations. At night, maintenance is accomplished in lightproof or light-suppressing maintenance tents or other shelters. Permanent structures, such as warehouses, civilian garages, and barns, are preferred.
b. If large shelters are not available, mechanics replace small components under a lean-to or some other lightproof shelter constructed of a tarpaulin or a poncho. Chemical light sticks provide adequate light for most repairs.
c. Most maintenance work is accomplished in the fighting positions or in the UMCP. To prevent congestion and confusion, a staging area is designated for vehicles awaiting repair. Tow cables or tow bars remain attached to vehicles that cannot move under their own power. This makes it easier to move the vehicle on short notice.
This section describes field services provided to the task force.
Graves registration services are provided by the MSB supply and service company. Grave registration at task force level consists of three functions: collection, identification, and evacuation. Casualty feeder reports (DA Form 1156) and witness statements (DA Form 1155) are completed by the soldier who has knowledge of the casualty and sent to the field trains with the returning LOGPACs. Military equipment is collected and turned over to the supply sergeant during LOGPAC operations. Remains are placed in human remains pouch, along with personal effects, and evacuated with returning LOGPAC vehicles to the field trains. If necessary, companies evacuate remains to the MSR and report the location to the combat trains CP. A collection point may be established, if necessary, at the combat trains under the control of the S4. In any case, remains are evacuated as rapidly as possible to the brigade collection point in the BSA. (See FM 10-63-1.)
Clothing exchange and bath (CEB) services are provided by the MSB supply and service company. Clothing exchange (or gratuitous issue) and bath service is requested from the MSB through the brigade S4. A request for CEB service must specify the location of the unit making the request, the desired time for service, and the range of clothing sizes for unit members. The requesting unit must be prepared to furnish soldiers to help setup the CEB operation. Normally, there is one CEB point per BSA.
Salvage services are provided by FSB supply company. A salvage collection point is established in the BSA by the FSB supply company. It receives serviceable, unserviceable (repairable), discarded, abandoned, and captured supplies and equipment. The salvage point will not accept COMSEC or medical supplies, toxic agents, radioactive materials, contaminated equipment, aircraft, ammunition, and explosives.
Laundry and renovation services are provided by corps CSS (COSCOM) when the tactical situation permits. This service is coordinated through the brigade S4.
Airdrop/airlift support is provided by corps and division aviation brigade assets. The S4 requests airdrop/airlift support through the brigade S4 and ensures that a drop or landing zone is prepared and marked.
Personnel and health service support functions sustain the morale and welfare of the soldier. At battalion level, these include personnel and administrative (P&A) services, chaplain activities, legal services, finance services, public affairs, postal services, EPW support, and health services support.
P&A services are the responsibility of the task force S1; they include the following.
a. Strength Accounting. Company teams and attached units submit a personnel daily summary report to the S1 in the combat trains CP. The S1 forwards a task force consolidated report through brigade S1 to the division G1/ AG main. The PAC in the field trains is given an information copy. These reports are the basis for individual replacements and Class I resupply. Accurate strength reports also provide the commander and staff with information to plan operations. Daily reports are included in the task force SOP.
b. Casualty Reporting. The S1 ensures that both strength and casualty reporting occur in a timely and accurate manner. Initial reports are usually verbal. Written reporting occurs as soon as possible after the event. It is initiated by the squad leader, tank commander, or any individual having knowledge of the incident. The casualty feeder report (DA Form 1156) is carried by all small-unit leaders to report battle casualties and nonbattle casualties. It provides initial information for notifying next of kin and for payment of benefits. When a soldier is reported missing or missing in action or when the remains are not under US control, a witness statement (DA Form 1155) accompanies the casualty feeder report. The first sergeant collects and forwards reports to the combat trains CP. The S1 cross-checks the reports, requests any needed clarification, adjusts unit strength reports, and forwards the reports through the PAC to the brigade S4.
c. Replacement Operations. Replacement flow is monitored by the PAC in the field trains. The HHC commander establishes a replacement receiving point (RRP) in the field trains and notifies the brigade S1 of its location. All replacements or hospital returnees are brought to the RRP for initial processing. The division AG is normally responsible for delivering replacements to the RRP. Replacements are briefed on SOPs and equipped with weapons and field gear before departing the field trains. They move forward to their unit with the LOGPAC.
d. Other Administrative Services. During lulls in the battle, the S1 and PAC complete all other P&A actions necessary. If possible, these are accomplished by forming personnel contact teams that move forward to company locations. Special consideration is given to timely processing of awards and decorations.
Chaplain activities are provided by the unit ministry team (one chaplain and one chaplain assistant) operating from the combat trains. The unit ministry team is dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of soldiers. Chaplain activities include essential subfunctions of providing worship opportunities; administration of sacraments, rites, and ordinances; pastoral care and counseling; advising the commander and staff on matters of religion, morals, and morale; ministry in support of battle fatigue; and religious support enhancing soldier morale and unit cohesion. Chaplains also routinely visit unit soldiers in nearby hospitals.
Legal service support is coordinated by the S1 section. It is provided to the task force on a GS basis by the staff judge advocate of the division. It includes --
Finance support to the task force is usually provided by mobile pay teams (MPT) from the corps' area finance support unit. During low-intensity operations, the MPTs make combat payments to soldiers in amounts established by the theater army commander, or in lesser amounts if the soldier so desires. The brigade commander may establish an amount less than the maximum for personnel of the brigade, based on the tactical situation and needs of the soldier. When and where the soldier is paid is determined by the commander, and coordinated by the S1.
Information (public affairs) support for soldiers and commanders in wartime is provided by the division public affairs office. Public affairs officers (PAOs) provide public affairs advice and service concerning all matters of soldier and media interest.
A postal element, assigned to the Corps DS postal company, receives and separates mail by battalion, then turns it over to the brigade S1. The battalion mail clerk receives and sorts the mail by task organization and distributes it to the unit supply sergeant (assistant mail clerk), who delivers it to the first sergeant or to the soldier himself (accountable mail) during LOGPAC resupply.
The S1 plans and coordinates EPW operations, collection points, and evacuation procedures. Prisoners of war are evacuated from the task force area as rapidly as possible. The capturing company is responsible for guarding prisoners until relieved by proper authority, recovering weapons and equipment, removing documents with intelligence value, and reporting to the main and combat trains CPs. Prisoners may be evacuated to the vicinity of the combat trains or UMCP for processing and initial interrogation. Crews of vehicles undergoing repair or unoccupied mechanics are used as guards. Prisoners are then moved to the brigade EPW collection point on returning LOGPAC vehicles or by transportation coordinated by the S4. As necessary, the S2 reviews and reports any documents or information of immediate value. The S4 coordinates evacuation of large amounts of enemy equipment. Wounded prisoners are treated through normal medical channels but kept separated from US and allied patients.
a. Planning. Task force health services support is planned by the medical platoon leader or battalion surgeon and S1. It is provided by the battalion medical platoon. Backup support is provided by the FSB medical company. To support task force operations, the medical platoon leader or battalion surgeon and medical operations officer must understand the scheme of maneuver as well as the support plan of the FSB medical company.
b. Organization. The medical platoon is organized with a platoon headquarters, a treatment squad, an ambulance section, and a combat medic section. This organization facilitates quick evacuation of wounded soldiers so that they may be treated by trained medical personnel within 30 minutes of the time they are wounded.
(1) The platoon headquarters and the medical treatment squad can form one or two battalion aid stations (BASS) capable of operating from or forward of the combat trains.
(2) The ambulance section operates from company trains and from the BAS. Tracked ambulances and crews habitually work with the same company, as to medics from the combat medic section. The senior combat medic is in charge of this company aid/evacuation team.
(1) Maneuver company aid/evacuation team.
(2) Battalion aid station. This facility has medically trained personnel to stabilize patients for further evacuation, to perform immediate lifesaving or limb-saving techniques, and to treat patients for minor wounds or illnesses and return them to duty. The BAS can operate two treatment teams for a limited time if the tactical situation requires it. Other functions of the BAS include --
d. Medical Evacuation. Evacuation is the responsibility of the next higher level of medical support; for example, the FSB medical company evacuates patients from the BAS, or coordinates from corps resources. Patients are evacuated no farther to the rear than their condition requires, and they are returned to duty as soon as possible.
(1) Evacuation within the task force is routinely conducted by the medical platoon ambulance section. Outside the task force, evacuation may be conducted by ground or air.
(2) Aerial means are used to evacuate patients as often as possible. Ground ambulances are used only for those patients who cannot be evacuated by air. Which means should be used is determined by the patient's condition, the availability of aircraft, and the tactical situation. Normally, the physician or PA treating the patient makes this determination.
(3) The platoon leader may coordinate with the S4 for additional transportation; he ensures that temporary ambulances have medically trained personnel and medical supplies necessary for casualty movement. Returning supply vehicles can be used for transportation. In the event of mass casualties, any type of vehicle may be used. The battalion SOP should address how to get casualties to ambulance exchange points for transportation to the next level of medical treatment.
(4) The unit that controls the sector has the implied task of providing medical assistance or evacuation to specialized platoons or personnel within the sector.
e. Medical Supply and Property Exchange. The medical platoon maintains a two-day stockage of medical supplies IAW guidance from the brigade or division surgeon. To prevent unnecessary depletion of blankets, litters, splints, and so forth, the receiving medical facility exchanges like property with the transferring agency. Medical property accompanying patients from allied nations is disposed of in accordance with STANAG 2128, Appendix C.
f. Preventive Measures. Experience in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam indicates that the majority of hospital admissions were for disease and nonbattle injury. Commanders can reduce disease and nonbattle injury by emphasizing preventive medicine, safety, and personal hygiene (see FM 21-10).
* g. Combat Lifesaver. The combat lifesaver is a nonmedical soldier selected by the commander for medical training beyond basic first-aid procedures. Soldiers chosen and trained as combat lifesavers serve in this capacity when the situation permits, but mission accomplishment always takes priority.
(1) Combat lifesaver duties include stabilizing the casualty before he can be medically evacuated. Combat lifesavers also help evacuate casualties.
(2) When soldiers know they have combat lifesavers, it increases morale, because soldiers know they will be eared for if wounded.
(3) Units should strive to have one combat lifesaver for each team-sized organization. This includes armored vehicle crews, maintenance platoons, and all CPs as well as maneuver platoons and companies.
Planners must be prepared for mass casualties, mass destruction of equipment, and the destruction or loss of effectiveness of entire units. This section discusses reconstitution and shows how battalions or companies that have been catastrophically depleted or rendered ineffective are returned to combat effectiveness. Reconstitution consists of the actions to restore companies to a desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements and availability of resources. Reconstitution differs from sustaining operations in that it is undertaken only when a unit is at an unacceptable level of combat readiness, whereas sustainment operations are routine actions to maintain combat readiness. Commanders reconstitute by either reorganization or regeneration.
Reorganization is the action taken to shift resources within a degraded company to increase its combat power. Measures taken include cross-leveling equipment and personnel, matching operational weapons systems with crews, or forming composite companies.
a. Immediate battlefield reorganization is the quick and often temporary restoration of companies conducted during an operation; for example, reorganizing on the objective and implementing the established succession of command.
b. Deliberate reorganization is a permanent restructuring of the unit. It is the type of reorganization considered during reconstitution planning. Deliberate reorganization is supported with higher echelon resources (such as maintenance and transportation), and additional replacements and other resources may be made available. Deliberate reorganization must be approved by the parent-unit commander one echelon higher than that reorganized. For example, the task force commander cannot approve the deliberate reorganization of an attached company, but the parent battalion commander or the brigade commander can approve it.
Regeneration is incremental or whole-unit rebuilding through large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies; reestablishing or replacing essential command, control, and communications; and conducting the necessary training for the rebuilt unit. The unit must be removed from combat to be regenerated. Divisions regenerate battalions or companies; corps regenerate brigades or battalions. To regenerate a unit, the division or corps commander must balance priorities for supplies, equipment, or other CSS, and he must task the support organizations to provide direct support to the regenerated unit.