CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Tank and mechanized infantry companies and company teams can fight and win engagements on any part of the battlefield in a conventional, nuclear, or chemical environment. The company team is normally task organized by the battalion task force commander, based on his estimate of the situation, to perform a variety of tactical missions as part of task force operations. In filling this combat role, the company team integrates with combat, combat support (CS), and combat service support (CSS) elements.

Company teams are capable of deploying in an 18-hour deployment sequence as part of the Army's force projection mandate. (NOTE: For a more detailed discussion of deployment operations and force projection operations, refer to FM 100-5.) They also can conduct stability and support operations as part of a joint task force or multinational force.

CONTENTS

Section 1 Mission, Organization, Capabilaities, and Limitations Tank Company Headquarters
Mechanized Infantry Company Headquarters
Tank Platoon
Mechanized Infantry Platoon
Combat Support Assets
Combat Service Support Assets
Section 2 Company Team Battlefield Focus
Section 3 Duties and Responsibilities of Key Personnel Commander
Executive Officer
First Sergeant
Platoon Leader
Platoon Sergeant
Fire Support Officer
Communications Specialist
Supply Sergeant
NBC NCO
Armorer
Master Gunner
Maintenance Team Chief
Senior Aidman
Section 4 Operating Systems Command and control
Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Intellignece
Maneuver
Fire Support
Information Operations
Air Defense
Mobility and Survivability
Combat Service Support
Section 5 The Human Dimension
Section 6 Specialized Operating Environments Military Operations in Urban Terrain
Desert Operations
Jungle Operations
Mountain Operations
Cold-Weather Operations

 

SECTION 1 - MISSION, ORGANIZATION,
CAPABILITIES, AND LIMITATIONS

The mission of the tank and mechanized infantry company team is to close with the enemy by means of fire and movement to defeat or capture him or to repel his assault by fire, close combat, or counterattack. In accomplishing its assigned missions, the company team employs CS and CSS assets within its capabilities.

The company team is an organization whose effectiveness depends on the synergy of its subordinate elements, including tanks, BFVs, infantry, engineers, and support elements. These components have a broad array of capabilities; individually, however, they also have a number of vulnerabilities. Effective application of the company team as a combined arms force can capitalize on the strengths of the team's elements while minimizing their respective weaknesses.

TANK COMPANY HEADQUARTERS

Figure 1-1 illustrates the organization of a tank company. The company headquarters includes the following personnel and equipment:

  • Two tanks with full crews, commanded by the company commander and the XO.
  • An M113A2 APC with crew under the command of the 1SG.
  • Two M998 HMMWVs with drivers. These vehicles carry the company master gunner and the company NBC NCO.
  • One cargo truck with 400-gallon water trailer. Manning this vehicle is the company supply section, which comprises the supply sergeant and the armorer.

Figure 1-1. Tank company organization.

 

MECHANIZED INFANTRY COMPANY HEADQUARTERS

Figure 1-2 illustrates the organization of a mechanized infantry company. The company headquarters includes the following personnel and equipment:

  • Two BFVs with full crews under the command of the company commander and the XO.
  • An M113A2 APC with crew under the command of the 1SG.
  • Two M998 HMMWVs with drivers.
  • Two cargo trucks with one 400-gallon water trailer and one cargo trailer. The company supply section mans these vehicles.

Figure 1-2. Mechanized infantry company organization.

 

TANK PLATOON

The tank platoon is considered the smallest maneuver element in the company. It normally fights as a unified element, with its sections fighting in concert with one another. Based on METT-TC factors, however, tank sections may be task organized with other elements. Examples include the task organization of a tank section with an infantry company during light/heavy operations or the task organization of a tank section with a mechanized infantry platoon during MOUT.

Personnel and
equipment

As noted, the tank platoon comprises four tanks, normally M1-series vehicles, organized in two sections. The platoon leader (Tank 1) and PSG (Tank 4) are the section leaders. Tank 2 is the wingman in the platoon leader's section, and Tank 3 is the wingman for the PSG's tank. Each four-man crew consists of the TC, gunner, loader, and driver. For a detailed description of the tank platoon's organization and personnel responsibilities, refer to FM 17-15. Figure 1-3 illustrates tank platoon organization.

Figure 1-3. Tank platoon organization.

 

Capabilities and
limitations

The tank platoon has the following capabilities:

  • It has the necessary manpower and equipment to effectively develop the situation.
  • It can conduct operations requiring firepower, mobility, armor protection, and shock effect.
  • When equipped with mine rollers and mine plows, it can reduce mine and wire obstacles.
  • It can employ maneuver (a combination of fire and movement) to destroy enemy tanks, fighting vehicles, antiarmor systems, and emplacements (such as strongpoints and bunkers).
  • It can assault enemy positions.
  • It can secure terrain.
  • It can defend, repelling enemy attacks with fires.
  • It can conduct combat operations under limited visibility conditions.
  • It can conduct mounted patrols.
  • It can provide support, in the form of armor protection and fires, to infantry and engineer elements in restricted terrain or during an assault.
  • It can suppress enemy positions with machine gun and/or main gun fire.
  • It can ford water obstacles up to 4 feet in depth.
  • It can operate in an NBC environment.
  • It can operate in a stability and support environment.

The tank platoon has these limitations:

  • Built-up areas, wooded areas, and other types of restricted or rugged terrain can severely limit the platoon's maneuverability.
  • Tanks are vulnerable to antiarmor weapons.
  • Water crossing operations present a variety of difficulties because of the weight of the platoon's tanks and requirements for fording sites and/or bridges that can support them.
  • The tank's weight and size limit its mobility over soft ground and prevent it from crossing many bridges.
  • During offensive operations, the platoon is vulnerable to dug-in enemy infantry elements, which are especially dangerous when equipped with antiarmor systems.
  • In defensive operations in restricted terrain, the tank platoon is vulnerable to dismounted infantry elements attacking from well-covered positions.
  • The platoon requires large amounts of fuel during extended operations. It can operate for eight hours without refueling.
  • It has limited capability to hold ground without infantry support.

 

MECHANIZED INFANTRY PLATOON

The mechanized infantry platoon can fight as a unified maneuver element or as two distinct elements, one mounted and one dismounted. The platoon must be prepared to operate in a variety of situations, both mounted and dismounted, conducting missions to attack, defend, delay, and move.

Personnel and
equipment

The mechanized infantry platoon is equipped with four BFVs. For mounted operations, it is organized in two sections of two vehicles each. The dismounted element consists of two squads of nine soldiers each and a machine gun section of five soldiers. The dismounted infantry squads ride in the BFVs, which serve as the base of fire during dismounted infantry operations. For a detailed description of the mechanized infantry platoon's organization and personnel responsibilities, refer to FM 7-7J.

Figure 1-4 illustrates the organization of the mechanized infantry platoon.

Figure 1-4. Mechanized infantry platoon organization.

 

Capabilities and
limitations

The following paragraphs list capabilities of the mechanized infantry platoon in mounted and dismounted operations, as well as the platoon's tactical limitations.

The mechanized infantry platoon has these capabilities:

  • It has the necessary manpower and equipment to effectively develop the situation.
  • It can destroy light armor vehicles using direct fire from the BFV's cannon.
  • It can employ cannon fire to fix, suppress, or substantially limit the movement of tanks, fighting vehicles, and antiarmor systems at a range of up to 2,500 meters.
  • It can destroy tanks and fighting vehicles with long-range ATGM fires. In the missile launch mode, the BFV is best employed at a range of 2,500 to 3,750 meters, where the target can be tracked for at least 12 seconds.
  • It can suppress and destroy the enemy's dismounted infantry elements with cannon and machine gun fire.
  • It can repel enemy attacks with close combat.
  • It can assault through small arms and indirect fires to deliver dismounted elements to tactical positions.
  • It can operate in an NBC environment.
  • It can operate in a stability and support environment.
  • It can seize and/or retain key terrain.
  • It can block dismounted avenues of approach.
  • It can protect obstacles and prevent enemy breaching operations.
  • It can establish strongpoints to deny the enemy key terrain or flank positions.
  • It can conduct assault breaches of obstacles.
  • In conjunction with its BFVs, the platoon's infantry squads can clear danger areas and prepare positions for mounted elements.
  • In conjunction with the BFVs, infantry squads can assault enemy positions.
  • The infantry squads can augment the antiarmor fires of tanks and BFVs.
  • The infantry squads can move over terrain not trafficable by tracked vehicles.
  • The platoon can infiltrate enemy positions.
  • It can conduct mounted or dismounted patrols and OPs in support of security operations.
  • If provided with airlift support, it can conduct air assault operations.

The mechanized infantry platoon has these limitations:

  • The platoon's BFVs are vulnerable to enemy antiarmor fires.
  • The platoon's infantry squads are vulnerable to small arms and indirect fires. Infantry squads should not be positioned where they will be exposed to long-range fires before they are able to take the enemy under fire.
  • The pace of dismounted offensive operations is limited to the foot speed of the dismounted infantryman.
  • The BFV poses a variety of difficulties in water crossing operations, including the requirement for either adequate fording sites or a bridge with sufficient weight classification.

 

COMBAT SUPPORT ASSETS

The company team may be task organized with the following CS elements:

  • The company team FIST.
  • Engineer assets, such as an engineer platoon or squad and/or special equipment.
  • Either a Stinger team, which rides on a dedicated BSFV or another company team vehicle, or a Bradley Linebacker.
  • A task force scout platoon during some security operations.
  • A task force mortar platoon or section during some tactical operations.
  • Sensor teams, such as those using ground surveillance radar (GSR) or the improved remotely monitored battlefield sensor system (IREMBASS), during some security operations.
  • Counterintelligence, civil affairs, and linguistic support teams during some stability and support operations.

 

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT ASSETS

The tank or mechanized infantry company team has an organic supply section. In addition, it is normally task organized with the following CSS attachments:

  • A maintenance team.
  • A medical aid and evacuation team.

SECTION 2 - COMPANY TEAM
BATTLEFIELD FOCUS

The company team employs maneuver (fire and movement) and integrates CS and CSS assets to complete tactical tasks in support of the battlefield purpose specified by the controlling task force commander. In doing this, the company team commander develops the situation, gaining sufficient information on the enemy situation to make prudent tactical decisions; the team then closes with and destroys enemy forces. The area of operations defined by this principle varies widely according to the nature of the battle and other METT-TC factors. It may be less than 100 meters in any direction during operations in forested areas, urban areas, close terrain, or trench lines. In more open terrain, the area of operations may extend up to 4 kilometers from the teamís direct fire weapon systems and out to 6 kilometers with support from the task forceís indirect fire systems.

During offensive operations, the company team may face stationary or moving enemy forces. The commander must apply his knowledge of the ground, the enemy, and the teamís combat, CS, and CSS assets to achieve superiority in local combat power. The close fight may require the team to breach obstacles, using suppressive fires and/or assaulting to penetrate or destroy enemy defenses. It is this ability to close with, destroy, and penetrate enemy ground forces that is the unique contribution of the company team. Following the destruction or penetration of the enemy, the company team aggressively follows through to its next action. The team destroys defending forces by integrating direct and indirect fires with mounted and dismounted movement. Following the attack, the company team consolidates and prepares for further action. It may also be tasked to conduct security operations for a larger force during offensive operations.

In the defense, the company team will most likely be expected to defend against an enemy battalion. It can repel the attacking enemy with fires and close combat, integrating the effects of direct and indirect fires, maneuver, and obstacles. It may also be designated as a reserve or counterattack force during defensive operations, or it may be tasked to conduct security operations for a larger force.

Regardless of the operation (offensive or defensive) it is conducting at any given moment, the company team must remain focused on continuing or returning to the offense. The team commander must aggressively seek and employ the appropriate offensive options in any situation.

SECTION 3 - DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
OF KEY PERSONNEL

COMMANDER

The commander is responsible for everything the company team does, or fails to do, in executing the mission assigned to it by the task force and/or brigade. His responsibilities include leadership, discipline, tactical employment, training, administration, personnel management, supply, maintenance, communications, and sustainment activities. These duties require the commander to understand the capabilities of the teamís soldiers and equipment and to know how to employ them to best tactical advantage. At the same time, he must be well versed in enemy organizations, doctrine, and equipment.

Using this knowledge, the commander prepares his unit for combat operations using troop-leading procedures. Ultimately, he must know how to exercise command effectively and decisively. He must be flexible, using sound judgment to make correct decisions quickly and at the right time based on the higher commanderís intent and the tactical situation. He must be able to issue instructions to his subordinate leaders in the form of clear, accurate combat orders; he then must ensure that the orders are executed.

EXECUTIVE OFFICER

The XO is the company teamís second in command and its primary CSS planner and coordinator. He and his crew may serve as the team net control station (NCS) for both radio and digital traffic. The XOís other duties include these:

  • Ensure accurate, timely tactical reports are sent to the task force.
  • Assume command of the company team as required.
  • In conjunction with the 1SG, plan and supervise the company team CSS effort prior to the battle.
  • Assist in preparation of the OPORD, especially paragraph 4 (service support).
  • Conduct tactical coordination with higher, adjacent, and supporting units.
  • As required, assist the commander in issuing orders to the company team headquarters and attachments.
  • Conduct additional missions as required. These may include serving as OIC for a quartering party or as the leader of the detachment left in contact (DLIC) in a withdrawal.
  • Assist the commander in preparations for follow-on missions.

FIRST SERGEANT

The 1SG is the teamís senior NCO and normally is its most experienced soldier. He is the commanderís primary tactical advisor; he is an expert in individual and NCO skills. He is the teamís primary CSS operator; he helps the commander to plan, coordinate, and supervise all logistical activities that support the tactical mission. He operates where the commander directs or where his duties require him.

The 1SGís specific duties include the following:

  • Execute and supervise routine operations. The 1SGís duties may include enforcing the tactical SOP; planning and coordinating training; coordinating and reporting personnel and administrative actions; and supervising supply, maintenance, communications, and field hygiene operations.
  • Supervise, inspect, and/or observe all matters designated by the commander. For example, the 1SG may observe and report on a portion of the teamís sector or zone, proof fighting positions, or assist in proofing an engagement area.
  • Plan, rehearse, and supervise key logistical actions in support of the tactical mission. These activities include resupply of Class I, III, and V products and materials; maintenance and recovery; medical treatment and evacuation; and replacement/RTD processing.
  • Assist and coordinate with the XO in all critical functions.
  • As necessary, serve as quartering party NCOIC.
  • Conduct training and ensure proficiency in individual and NCO skills and small-unit collective skills that support the company teamís METL.
  • In conjunction with the commander, establish and maintain the foundation for company team discipline.

PLATOON LEADER

The platoon leader is responsible to the commander for leadership, discipline, training, and sustainment activities related to the platoon; for maintenance of its equipment; and for its success in combat. He must be proficient in the tactical employment of the platoon and his section (mounted or dismounted) in concert with the rest of the company team.

In many ways, the platoon leaderís command and control responsibilities parallel those of the team commander. Like the commander, he must have a solid understanding of troop-leading procedures and develop his ability to apply them quickly and efficiently. He must know the capabilities and limitations of the platoonís personnel and equipment and be well versed in enemy organizations, doctrine, and equipment. On the battlefield, characteristics of an effective platoon leader again mirror those of the commander: a combination of tactical flexibility, sound judgment, and the ability to make rapid decisions accurately and at the right time based on the commanderís intent and specifics of the tactical situation.

PLATOON SERGEANT

The PSG is platoonís second in command and is accountable to the platoon leader for the leadership, discipline, training, and welfare of the platoonís soldiers. He coordinates the platoonís maintenance and logistical requirements and handles the personal needs of individual soldiers. The PSG fights his section in concert with the platoon leaderís section.

FIRE SUPPORT OFFICER

The company team fire support officer (FSO) helps the commander to plan, coordinate, and execute the teamís fire support requirements and operations. During operational planning, he develops and refines a fire support plan based on the commanderís concept and guidance. He then coordinates the plan with the battalion FSO. The team FSO also has these responsibilities:

  • Advise the commander on the capabilities and current status of all available fire support assets.
  • Serve as the commanderís primary advisor on the enemyís indirect fire capabilities.
  • Assist the commander in developing the OPORD to ensure full integration of fires.
  • Recommend targets and fire control measures, and determine methods of engagement and responsibility for firing the targets.
  • Determine the specific tasks and instructions required to conduct and control the fire plan.
  • Develop an observation plan, with limited visibility contingencies, that supports the company team and task force missions.
  • Brief the fire support plan to the company team commander and the task force FSO.
  • Brief the fire support plan as part of the company team OPORD, and coordinate with platoon FOs (when attached) to ensure they understand their responsibilities.
  • Refine and integrate the company team target worksheet; submit the completed worksheet to the task force fire support element (FSE).
  • Assist the commander in incorporating execution of the indirect fire plan into each company team rehearsal. This includes integrating indirect fire observers into the rehearsal plan.
  • In tactical situations, alert the company team commander if a request for fires against a target has been denied.
  • In tactical situations, monitor the location of friendly units and assist the commander in clearance of indirect fires.
  • Request counterbattery support in response to enemy artillery and/or mortar attacks.

COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST

The communications specialist supervises the operation, maintenance, and installation of organic wire and FM communications. His responsibilities include sending and receiving routine traffic and making required communications checks. The communications specialist may also have these duties:

  • Perform limited troubleshooting of the company teamís organic communications equipment, and provide the link between the company team and the task force for maintenance of communications equipment.
  • Supervise all activities in regard to the company teamís COMSEC equipment. This usually will entail requisition, receipting, training, maintenance, security, and employment of this equipment and related materials.
  • Assist the commander in planning and employment of the teamís communications systems. Using the commanderís guidance, the communications specialist may assist in preparation of paragraph 5 (command and signal) of the OPORD.
  • Supervise or assist in company team CP operations. Responsibilities may include relaying information, monitoring the tactical situation, establishing the CP security plan and radio watch schedule, and informing the commander and subordinate elements of significant events. (NOTE: In many situations, the communications specialist will be a soldier with the rank of specialist or below; he may or may not have the experience to take on additional duties such as NCOIC of the CP.)

SUPPLY SERGEANT

The supply sergeant requests, receives, issues, stores, maintains, and turns in supplies and equipment for the company team. He coordinates all supply requirements and actions with the 1SG and the battalion S4. Normally, the supply sergeant will be positioned with the task force field trains, where he is supervised by the HHC commander or support platoon leader. He communicates with the company team using the task force A/L radio net (when available in the field trains). (NOTE: Refer to Chapter 7 for a detailed discussion of CSS operations and requirements.) The supply sergeantís specific responsibilities include the following:

  • Control the company team cargo truck and water trailer, and supervise the supply clerk/armorer.
  • Monitor company team activities and/or the tactical situation; anticipate and report logistical requirements; and coordinate and monitor the status of the company teamís logistics requests.
  • Coordinate and supervise the organization of the company team LOGPAC in the task force field trains.

NBC NCO

The NBC NCO assists and advises the company team commander in planning for and conducting operations in an NBC environment. He plans, conducts, and/or supervises NBC defense training, covering such areas as decontamination procedures and use and maintenance of NBC-related equipment. Specific duties include the following:

  • Assist the commander in developing company team operational exposure guidance (OEG) in accordance with OEG from higher headquarters.
  • Make recommendations to the commander on NBC survey and/or monitoring, decontamination, and smoke support requirements.
  • Requisition NBC-specific equipment and supply items.
  • Assist the commander in developing and implementing the company team NBC training program. The NBC NCO ensures that the training program covers the following requirements:
    • First-line supervisors provide effective sustainment training in NBC common tasks.
    • NBC-related leader tasks are covered in sustainment training.
    • NBC-related collective tasks are covered in overall unit training activities.
    • NBC factors are incorporated as a condition in the performance of METL tasks.

  • Inspect company team elements to ensure NBC preparedness.
  • Process and disseminate information on enemy and friendly NBC capabilities and activities, including attacks.
  • Advise the commander on contamination avoidance measures.
  • Coordinate, monitor, and supervise decontamination operations.

ARMORER

The armorer performs organizational maintenance on the companyís small arms and is responsible for evacuating weapons as necessary to the direct support (DS) maintenance unit. In addition, he normally assists the supply sergeant in the brigade support area (BSA). (NOTE: As an option, the armorer may serve as the driver of the 1SGís vehicle to make him more accessible for weapons repair and maintenance in forward areas.)

MASTER GUNNER

The master gunner is the company teamís expert in vehicle gunnery. He assists the commander in gunnery training and preparations for combat to ensure that every crew and platoon can make effective, lethal use of their firepower assets. These preparations include assisting tank and BFV crews by establishing or coordinating boresight lines, plumb and sinc berms (for M1A2 units), and/or use of live-fire screening ranges and zero ranges. The master gunner also assists turret mechanics from the company maintenance team (CMT) in troubleshooting and repairing turret main armament and fire control systems. As the company teamís direct fire weapons expert, he can assist in engagement area development and direct fire planning for both offensive and defensive operations. Additional duties in the planning and preparation phases may include assisting in CSS coordination and execution, serving as NCOIC of the CP, and assisting the commander in troop-leading procedures.

During combat operations, the master gunner advises the commander on applicable battlesight ranges. He may serve as the gunner on one of the command tanks or BFVs, as a CSS operator riding on the APC, or as a section NCOIC in the company teamís wheeled vehicles with responsibility for facilitating communications with the task force.

MAINTENANCE TEAM CHIEF

The maintenance team chief (attached from the task force maintenance platoon) supervises the CMT. He decides whether damaged vehicles and equipment can be repaired in place or must be evacuated. Other key responsibilities include coordinating evacuation and repair operations; managing requisition of Class IX supplies in conjunction with the task force maintenance officer; and managing the employment of the CMT mechanics and evacuation assets. The maintenance team chief monitors the tactical situation and directs maintenance team personnel during combat repair and recovery operations. If necessary, he leads the company team combat trains in the 1SGís absence.

SENIOR AIDMAN

The senior aidman (attached from the BAS) works with the company team medic in coordinating medical activities and supervising team personnel (such as combat lifesavers and platoon aidmen) who hold medical responsibilities. He provides training in such areas as basic first aid and buddy aid; he can also train and direct company team combat trains personnel to assist in handling mass casualties. He is responsible for resupply of Class VIII materials and equipment for the company team.

During tactical operations, the senior aidman monitors the tactical situation and responds as necessary. He administers first aid to casualties, supervises other medical personnel, and directs evacuation of casualties from platoon positions when required. He keeps the 1SG informed of the status of casualties and coordinates with him for additional evacuation and treatment assets.

SECTION 4 - OPERATING SYSTEMS

The eight operating systems allow the company team commander to analyze various tactical, maneuver, and support functions as he prepares his unit for combat operations. In developing his plan, the commander integrates considerations and procedures from each operating system, as described in this section, to ensure the unit can effectively accomplish its mission.

COMMAND AND CONTROL

The command and control process is the commanderís basic tool in the employment of the company team. It consists of the activities and procedures used by the commander to plan, direct, coordinate, and control the functions and actions of the company team; it also includes the personnel and equipment that assist him with command and control.

The commander employs the team in accordance with the guidance and orders he receives from the battalion task force. Perhaps his most important skills lie in accurately analyzing the situation and developing a plan that has the greatest chance of accomplishing the mission with the least cost in lives and equipment. After developing the plan, the commander delegates authority to his subordinates, clearly assigning responsibilities, tasks, and purposes and stating his intent so that every member of the unit can effectively use his own initiative.

During the battle, the commander must position himself where he can most effectively carry out the duties and demands of battle command. The position must allow him to make sound tactical decisions in keeping with the axiom, "See the terrain, see the enemy, see yourself." Because he may not be able to see everything, however, the commander must also be prepared to visualize what is happening through oral and written reports and information from digital systems. He must be ready at all times to influence the battle by using FRAGOs to issue clear, concise instructions to company team elements.

NOTE: As the company teamís second in command, the XO holds the critical responsibility of assisting the commander in the command and control process. The XO must be prepared to assume command at any time. During mission planning and preparation, the commander must consider where he and the XO will be positioned on the battlefield; this is a key factor both in assuring effective control of the team and in facilitating a smooth transition if the XO must assume command.

RECONNAISSANCE, SURVEILLANCE, AND INTELLIGENCE

The RSI operating system covers activities employed to see the enemy, terrain, and other aspects of battle space that will affect friendly operations. Although the company teamís primary mission is to fight, it normally conducts some type of reconnaissance or surveillance prior to any operation; in addition, it conducts reconnaissance during execution of all operations. Both before and during an operation, the company team receives intelligence and combat information from its parent headquarters, from other company teams, and from elements within the team. At the same time, the team is a critical source of combat information throughout the operation.

MANEUVER

Maneuver is the employment of forces on the battlefield; it entails using a combination of fire (or fire potential) and movement to achieve a position of advantage with respect to the enemy, to develop the situation as necessary, and to close with and destroy the enemy. Based on METT-TC factors, the company team commander may maneuver his tank platoons, BFV platoons, infantry squads, and other support forces to achieve the positional advantage.

Ideally, the commander moves the company team using bounding overwatch when contact is likely, then makes the transition to maneuver (executing actions on contact as necessary) once contact is made. He uses indirect fires and a base of fire by stationary friendly elements to provide protection for the moving elements as they close with the enemy. He also ensures effective flank security, an essential element of successful maneuver.

FIRE SUPPORT

The company team integrates fire support into its portion of the task force fight. The task force fire support plan specifies the intended tactical purpose for each task assigned to the company team; for example, the plan may state that a target will be fired so that it diverts an enemy force from a particular route. The company team commander designates triggers for each target as well as primary and backup observers to call for and adjust fires as necessary. The commander then has ultimate responsibility for ensuring not only that the team effectively executes the target but also that the intended purpose is met (in this case, diverting the enemy from his original course).

INFORMATION OPERATIONS

Friendly forces employ information operations to magnify their own combat power and diminish the enemyís; a key function is to paralyze, disorganize, or degrade the enemyís ability to apply his operating systems. Information operations may be offensive or defensive. Typical components are electronic warfare (EW), physical destruction, deception, operations security (OPSEC), psychological operations (PSYOP), civil affairs (CA), and public affairs (PA).

AIR DEFENSE

The company team executes passive or active air defense measures, or a combination, to evade enemy aircraft, degrade the effects of an air attack, or destroy the attacking aircraft. Passive air defense is aimed at avoiding detection or protecting the unit through the use of camouflage, hide positions, and similar measures. Active air defense may entail use of evasive measures, execution of air defense drills by organic elements, employment of the company teamís organic firepower, and/or employment of air defense assets.

MOBILITY AND SURVIVABILITY

This operating system addresses both engineer and NBC functions. In the offense, for example, the company team may receive mobility assets, such as MICLICs from the supporting engineer unit or additional mine plows and rollers from other tank companies, for the conduct of breaching operations. In conducting a defense, the team may be able to employ supporting engineer survivability assets or be called upon to execute the teamís portion of the task force countermobility effort. Examples of the company teamís NBC-related functions include escorting smoke-generating or chemical reconnaissance elements or conducting decontamination operations supported by a decontamination platoon attached to the brigade.

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

There are five functional areas of CSS: supply, transportation, maintenance, field services, and personnel services. The company team has an organic supply section and normally has attached medical/evacuation and maintenance teams. Other support for the team is provided by CSS assets from the task force.

SECTION 5 - THE HUMAN DIMENSION

Although the "human dimension" is not an operating system, it is a crucial factor in the success of any mission. Soldiers win battles; systems are only their tools. At the same time, soldiers are human, and as such, they have repetitive physical and emotional needs. A leader who is 100-percent "mission first," with no consideration of the human dimension, will see his command degrade quickly.

Leaders and subordinates alike must earn trust; it is not automatic. Commanders must consider the training and experience of their subordinates so they can assign missions that best capitalize on each soldierís strengths. They must also identify and correct their troopsí weaknesses. For their part, soldiers must believe that the chain of command will do its best to take care of them within the parameters of the mission requirements.

The individual soldierís competence and performance on the battlefield depends heavily on his belief in his own abilities; in turn, this self-confidence is the sum of his confidence in his equipment, in his leaders, and in his fellow soldiers as part of a team. Soldier confidence is built through effective leadership and tough, realistic training.

For commanders, the guiding principle in handling the human dimension of military operations is that they can tap their unitsí full combat potential only when soldiers are healthy physically, mentally, and spiritually. Every commander must take every necessary action to enhance his soldiersí health, morale, welfare, and overall readiness to fight.

Refer to FM 22-100 for more information on the human dimension.

SECTION 6 - SPECIALIZED OPERATING ENVIRONMENTS

The company team must be prepared to fight on any type of terrain and in all types of adverse climatic conditions and weather. The following paragraphs examine some of the tactical considerations and requirements the team will face in several special operating environments. The discussion lists field manuals that provide additional information on operations in each type of environment.

MILITARY OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN

On the urban battlefield, the company team must take full advantage of all natural and man-made features. At the same time, it must remain vigilant because of the potential dangers these features pose. Built-up areas provide virtually unlimited positions affording cover and concealment for a defender; they restrict the attackerís mobility and observation as well.

Whether tank-heavy or mech-heavy, the company team has only a limited number of dismounted infantrymen that it can employ to clear and defend urban areas. The commander therefore must carefully assess how to employ the firepower of the teamís tanks and BFVs in support of the infantry squads during clearance or strongpoint defense operations.

Refer to FM 90-10, FM 90-10-1, and Appendix I of this manual for information on MOUT.

DESERT OPERATIONS

Desert operations require special training, effective acclimatization, and a high degree of self-discipline. The company team commander must take into account a variety of unique operational factors, such as increased visibility (both for the team and for enemy elements) and wide mobility corridors. He must also recognize the special problems that desert operations pose in the area of logistical support. The desert is hard on vehicles and equipment, causing a variety of maintenance problems. The extended distances, lack of cover and concealment, and less-than-ideal movement conditions can complicate resupply operations.
(NOTE: While the techniques of desert combat and logistical support differ from those used in temperate climates, the commander must always remember that basic operational principles and fundamentals do not change.)

Refer to FM 90-3 for a detailed examination of desert operations.

JUNGLE OPERATIONS

Severe limitations in visibility and mobility are dominant factors for the heavy company team during jungle operations. Lack of visibility greatly increases the potential for problems related to flank coordination, mutual and adjacent support, short engagement ranges, and enemy infiltration. Highly restrictive mobility corridors will almost invariably slow the teamís movement. Severe weather also adversely affects operations in the jungle. The degree to which soldiers are acclimated and trained to live and fight in the jungle will contribute to the unitís success or failure.

FM 90-5 is the primary reference for information on jungle operations.

MOUNTAIN OPERATIONS

Mountainous terrain requires the commander to modify the company teamís tactics and techniques. Mountains obviously pose a serious physical barrier to any type of movement. The impact can be especially significant for the heavy company team, which will find its mobility and fields of observation and fire greatly restricted. In addition, the severity and highly variable nature of mountain weather have a significant impact on military operations.

See FM 90-6 for additional information on mountain operations.

COLD-WEATHER OPERATIONS

Cold weather, which can vary from the relatively mild winters of central Europe to the extremes of subarctic climates, will greatly affect company team operations. Low temperatures will degrade most optical systems. To varying degrees, cold will also cause performance problems in most vehicles; related weather conditions, such as heavy snow, can severely hamper vehicle mobility. Company team personnel are affected by cold weather as well. Commanders must determine how to limit the amount of time soldiers are directly exposed to the cold. Cold-weather conditions can also affect other tactical considerations; for example, they may change the effectiveness of natural and reinforced obstacles and barriers.

Refer to FM 90-22 for additional information on these operations, including prevention of cold-weather injuries.